Flashcards in 3.2.4 Sociocultural Factors (Sch) Deck (37):
What are sociocultural factors?
Aspects of your society of culture that influence your behaviour or mental health
"To understand the causes of schizophrenia the role of what cannot be ignored?"
The social environment
(Urbanicity) there is higher prevalence of schizophrenia where?
In urban areas compared to rural
(Urbanicity) 1939 - it was found there was a higher incidence of schizophrenia where?
Inner city areas - Chicago
(Urbanicity) what is a criticism of the 1939 research?
Old piece of research - inaccurate diagnosis of schizophrenia at the time
The term covered many mental illnesses
(Urbanicity) Os et al - how much higher was the incidence of schizophrenia in those born and raised in urban areas?
(Urbanicity) Os et al - the usual rate of schizophrenia is what?
(Urbanicity) Os et al - the rate of schizophrenia for those in urban areas was what?
(Urbanicity) What is the likely reason for higher rates of schizophrenia in urban areas?
Environmental features of urban life
(Urbanicity) what environmental features might these be?
Pollution - leader petrol
Flu infections during pregnancy due to more people around
(Urbanicity) what needs to be carefully considered?
The mechanisms of urbanicity
(Urbanicity) the UN estimate by 2050 how many of the worlds population will live in an urban environment?
(Urbanicity) the more people in cities, the more what?
People at risk
(Social isolation) individuals with schizophrenia tend to report what types of backgrounds?
Fewer friends and limited social networks
(Social isolation) it is suggest d people with schizophrenia find contact stressful so they do what?
(Social isolation) urbanicity and overcrowding can lead to what?
(Social isolation) fairs - self imposed isolation has what effect?
Cuts the individual from feedback about what behaviours are inappropriate
Without corrective feedback they behave strangely
(Ethnicity and discrimination) stats have shown what about the Afro-Caribbean communities?
Higher than expected number of individuals with schizophrenia
(Ethnicity and discrimination) McGovern and Cope studied who?
Psychotic patients held in hospitals in Birmingham
(Ethnicity and discrimination) McGovern and cope - what proportion of patients in hospitals were Afro-Caribbean?
(Ethnicity and discrimination) McGovern and Cope - what proportion of patients were white or Asian?
(Ethnicity and discrimination) McGovern and Cope - Afro-caribbeans are how many times more likely?
(Ethnicity and discrimination) Cochrane - black Afro-Caribbean immigrants are how many times more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia?
(Ethnicity and discrimination) Kirkbride - there were higher rates of schizophrenia for who?
Black immigrants in black communities compared to those in ethnically intergrated areas
(Ethnicity and discrimination) why can the stats not be explained by genetics?
Increased risk not apparent in studies in the Caribbean - Mahy et al
(Ethnicity and discrimination) a more reasonable explanation for the statistics is that what leads to schizophrenia?
Stress induced through migration to a different culture
(Ethnicity and discrimination) if the idea of migration was true what would you expect?
High rates of schizophrenia in first generation immigrants
(Ethnicity and discrimination) but what did Harrison et al find about schizophrenia rates?
Found in first generation immigrants and the children of immigrants
(Ethnicity and discrimination) it has been suggested discrimination where is a likely explanation?
Society and psychiatry
(Ethnicity and discrimination) racism is stressful and unpleasant and may be a what?
(Ethnicity and discrimination) who is psychiatry dominated by and why might this be an issue?
Middle class white males
Ethnocentric view imposing their expectations
(Social class) there has been found to be a high incidence of schizophrenia in who?
Those of a low social class
(Social class) Johnstone - lower class mental health patients were likely to do what?
Spend longer in hospital
Receive poorer prognosis
(Social class) Kirkbride - the rate of schizophrenia is 4x higher where?
Heavily populated deprived communities
(Social class) Harrison - risk of adult onset schizophrenia increased with what?
Levels of deprivation at birth
(Social class) some argue lower class individuals are more likely to be what?