Flashcards in Chemical Pathology 11 - Sodium and fluid balance Deck (43)
What is the definition of hyponatraemia?
Serum sodium <135
Upon which receptors does ADH act?
V1 (collecting duct) and V2 (on VSMCs)
What are the 2 stimuli for ADH secretion?
Serum osmolality (detected by hypothalamic osmoreceptors)
Blood volume/ pressure (mediated by baroreceptors in carotids, atria and aorta)
What are the clinical signs of hypovolaemia?
Dry mucous membranes
Reduce skin turgor
Reduced urine output
KEY: LOW URINE Na+ (<20)
Recall 4 causes of hypovolaemic hyponatraemia
Salt losing nephropathy
Recall 3 causes of euvolaemic hyponatraemia
(Euvolaemic = Endocrine - 2 'E's)
Recall 3 causes of hypervolaemic hyponatraemia
In which patients can you not use urine sodium as a reliable test result?
Patients on diuretics
How does hypothyroidism cause euvolaemic hyponatraemia?
Hypothyroidism --> Reduced cardiac contractility --> detected by baroreceptors --> more ADH --> increased water resorption --> low plasma Osm secondary to dilution --> less water excreted in urine --> high urinary Osm
How does adrenal insufficiency cause euvolaemic hyponatraemia?
Adrenal insufficiency --> low aldosterone and cortisol
Aldosterone is necessary for sodium and water resorption, cortisol is necessary for water clearance, therefore you get excess ADH
What are the 5 main causes of SIADH?
Drugs (SSRI, PPI, opiates)
What 3 tests should be done in euvolaemic hyponatraemia?
TFTs for hypothyroidism
Short SynACTHen test for adrenal insufficiency
Plasma and urine osmolality for SIADH
Why is urine sodium low in cardiac failure (hypervolaemic hyponatraemia)
Hyperaldosteronism --> retention of sodium
What will be the urine and plasma and urine osmolality in SIADH
Plasma = low (because it's hyponatraemia!)
Urine = high (>100)
What will urine sodium be in cardiac failure?
Why do you get hyperaldosteronism in cardiac failure?
Activation of RAAS
How do you manage a patient with hypovolaemic hyponatraemia?
Fluid replacement with 0.9% saline
How do you manage a patient with hypervolaemic hyponatraemia?
Treat the underlying cause
How do you manage a patient with euvolaemic hyponatraemia?
Treat the underlying cause
If you give fluids, this will exacerbate the hyponatraemia
What are the symptoms of SEVERE hyponatraemia?
What is the max rate of serum Na+ correction in hyponatraemia and why?
No more that 8-10mmol/L in 1st 24 hours
Risk of osmotic demyelination (central pontine myelinolysis)
How is SIADH treated?
PLUS (but both used rarely)
1. Demeclocycline (reduces responsiveness of collecting tubule cells to ADH - but caution because nephrotoxic) OR
2. Tolvaptan (V2 receptor agonist)
Why does SIADH cause euvolaemia?
SIADH --> hypervolaemia (due to water retention) --> natiuretic peptide released from heart --> increased sodium excretion to try and pull water into urine --> euvolaemia (as you have now lost the water, but have also lost sodium in order to do so)
What are the main causes of hypernatraemia?
Unreplaced water loss
Due to GI losses or renal losses (eg diabetes insipidus)
What investigations would you order in a pt with suspected Diabetes insipidus?
Serum glucose (exclude DM)
Serum K+ (exclude hypokalaemia)
Serum Ca (exclude hypercalcaemia)
Plasma and urine osmolality
Water deprivation test
How would you manage hypernatraemia?
Fluid replacement with 5% DEXTROSE (NOT saline)
Treat underlying cause
How does diabetes mellitus affect serum Na?
Hyperglycaemia --> water drawn out of cells --> hyponatraemia
Osmotic diuresis (polyuria) --> loss of water --> hypernatraemia
What is the first investigation to do in suspected hyponatraemia/hypernatraemia?
Clinically asses volume status
How should severe hyponatraemia (<125mmol/L AND symptomatic) be treated?
Seek expert help and use 2.7% hypertonic saline