Microbiology 5 - CNS infections and meningitis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology 5 - CNS infections and meningitis Deck (22)
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1

Which antibiotic should be used first line in meningitis?

Ceftriaxone

2

Is listeria meningitis is suspected, what antibiotic therapy should be used?

Ceftriaxone plus amoxicillin

3

Which pathogen is most likely to be the cause in myelitis?

Poliovirus

4

What is myelitis?

Inflammation of the spinal cord

5

Recall the 3 most likely causative organisms in acute meningitis, and the most susceptible demographic of patient to each

N. meningitidis = young
S. pneumoniae = elderly (so vaccine at 65 years)
H. influenzae = those who haven't had HiB vaccine

6

What is the most commonn cause of meningitis in neonates?

Group B strep

7

What is the most likely causative organism in chronic meningitis?

TB

8

What is the most likely causative organism in aseptic meningitis?

Coxsackie virus

9

Describe the rash produced by meningococcal meningitis

Non-blanching purpuric rash

10

What is the most likely viral cause of encephalitis in the UK and worldwide?

UK: HSV
Worldwide: WNV

11

Recall 3 possible routes of infection that may cause a brain abscess

Direct expansion from
- otitis media
- mastoiditis
- paranasal sinusitis

12

What is the most common type of spinal vertebral infection?

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

13

What is the most common cause of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis?

Infective endocarditis - staph/ strep can be 'flicked off' the valve

14

What is the first investigation to do in suspected meningitis?

Blood cultures

15

Recall the stains used in CSF analysis to look for a) bacteria b) TB and c) fungi

a) gram stain
b) auramine stain
c) India ink

16

If "alpha haemolytic diplococci" are found in CSF, what is the pathogen causing meningitis?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

17

What is the normal range for CSF protein?

0.15-0.4

18

What is the appearance of CSF in purulent vs aseptic vs TB meningitis?

Purulent: turbid
Aseptic/ TB: slightly turbid or clear

19

What type of cell is elevated in the CSF in purulent vs aseptic vs TB meningitis?

Purulent: polymorphs
Aseptic/ TB: lymphocytes

20

In which type of meningitis will gram stain antigen tests be positive?

Purulent meningitis

21

Which type of meningitis produces the most protein in CSF?

TB meningitis

22

What is the empirical therapy for meningitis?

Ceftriaxone 2g IV bd
Add amoxicillin if >50 or immunocompromised

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