Chemical Pathology 2 - Lipoprotein metabolism, CVD and obesity Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Pathology ICSM > Chemical Pathology 2 - Lipoprotein metabolism, CVD and obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemical Pathology 2 - Lipoprotein metabolism, CVD and obesity Deck (22)
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1

What is the role of HDL?

Picks up excess cholesterol from the periphery and transports it to liver

2

What is the role of the enzyme CETP in cholesterol metabolism?

HDL to VLDL conversion

3

What is the key enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis?

HMG CoA reductase

4

Which enzyme converts cholesterol to cholesteryl ester?

ACAT

5

What is VLDL constituted of?

ApoB, cholesteryl ester and triglyceride

6

What is the function of 7-alpha hydroxase in cholesterol metabolism?

Converts cholesterol to bile acids

7

What is the main component of mixed micelles?

Bile acids

8

Where are bile acids resorbed?

Terminal ileum

9

What controls the amount of cholesterol resorbed into the intestine?

Balance of 2 enzymes: NPC1L1 and ABC G5/G8

10

What is the inheritance pattern of familial hypercholesterolaemia type II?

Heterozygous dominant

11

What name is given to an inherited predeliction to high HDL, and what mutation causes this?

Familial hyper alpha lipoproteinaemia
= CETP deficiency

12

What condition is caused by ABC G5/G8 mutation?

Phytosterolaemia

13

What is phytosterolaemia?

Inherited condition that allows plant sterols to enter the plasma freely, which are more athrogenic than cholesterol itself

14

Recall 3 clinical signs of hypercholesterolaemia

Xanthalasma
Arcus
Tendon xanthoma

15

How can you examine for tendon xanthoma?

Feel back of ACL

16

What are the different types of primary hypertriglyceridaemia?

I, IV and V
All familial

17

What is A-beta-lipoproteinaemia?

MTP deficiency causing hypolipidaemia

18

Recall 3 inherited conditions that can cause hypolipidaemia

A-beta-lipoproteinaemia
Hypo-beta-lipoproteinaemia
Tangier disease (HDC deficiency)

19

What is the effect of statins on cholesterol levels?

Very effective at reducing LDL, also reduce triglyceride and HDL

20

What is the effect of fibrate drugs on cholesterol levels?

Very effective at reducing triglycerides, also reduces LDL

21

What is the role of PCSK9?

Binds LDLR and promotes its degradation

22

What is the mechanism of action of statins?

HMG coA reductase inhibition

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