Haematology 8 - Thrombosis: aetiology and management Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Pathology ICSM > Haematology 8 - Thrombosis: aetiology and management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology 8 - Thrombosis: aetiology and management Deck (28)
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1

What is the triad of symptoms in thrombophlebitic syndrome?

Recurrent pain
Swelling
Ulcers

2

What catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin?

Thrombin

3

Which anticoagulant molecules are expressed on the blood vessel wall?

Thrombomodulin
Endothelial Protein C receptor
TFPI

4

How does inflammation affect the blood vessel wall?

It makes it prothrombotic

5

Recall 5 effects of inflammation on the blood vessel wall

1. Anticoagulant molecules are downregulated
2. TF expressed
3. Prostacyclin decreased
4. Adhesion molecules upregulated
5. VWF released (leading to neutrophil capture, and formation of NETs)

6

How do neutrophils contribute to immunothrombosis?

Neutrophils release DNA, which is procoagulant

7

What is the mechanism of action of clopidogrel?

Inhibits ADP receptors

8

Give 4 ways in which blood stasis promotes thrombosis

1. Accumulation of activated factors
2. Promotes platelet adhesion
3. Promotes leukocyte adhesion and transmigration
4. Hypoxia produces inflammatory effect on endothelium

9

What is the broad mechanism of action of heparins?

Potentiate antithrombin

10

What is one risk of long term heparin use?

Osteoporosis

11

Give an example of an anti-Xa drug

Rivaroxaban

12

Give an example of an anti-IIa drug

Dabigatran

13

How does warfarin affect vit K?

Prevents recycling of Vit K

14

Which procoagulant factors fall as a result of warfarin medication?

II, VII, IX and X
Also Protein C and Protein S

15

How is warfarin monitored?

INR measure

16

Why should warfarin never be given to pregnant women?

It is teratogenic

17

Give an example of an LMWH

Enoxaparin/ Tinzaparin

18

What scoring system is used to calculate risk of thrombosis?

Chads-vasc

19

Which surgeries carry the highest risk of thrombosis?

Orthopaedic

20

Which surgeries carry highest risk of bleeding?

Neuro, spinal or eye surgery

21

Which class of anti-coagulants carries a significantly lower risk of intracranial bleeding?

DOACs

22

What is the best drug to use as a long-term anticoagulant in a patient who has had an idiopathic VTE?

DOACs

23

Recall 3 minor precipitants of thrombosis

COPD
flights
trauma

24

After someone has suffered a thrombosis due to a minor precipitant, how long should they be anti-coagulated for?

3 months

25

Recall the order in which the different coagulation factors in the intrinsic pathway catalyse each other?

12
11
9
8
10

26

Which coagulation measure is used to monitor heparin therapy?

APTT

27

Which coagulation measure is used to monitor warfarin therapy?

PT (INR)

28

Which factor does the extrinsic pathway start with?

Seven

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