Flashcards in Histopathology 9 - Urological pathology Deck (32)
What is the most common composition of urinary calculi?
What is the most likely cause of calcium oxalate urinary calculi?
Either due to excessive Ca absorption from gut or impaired absorption in nephron
What are magnesium ammonium phosphate urinary calculi also known as?
What is the cause of triple stones?
A consequence of infection with urease-producing organisms
Urease --> ammonia increase
Ammonia makes urine alkaline --> triple stone precipitation
Why might a small urinary stone become symptomatic?
If it gets out of kidney and gets into the ureter - it will cause colic at any point where the ureter bends
What type of urinary calculi are caused by gout?
Uric acid stones
What is papillary adenoma of the kidney?
Benign epithelial kidney tumour composed of papillae and/or tubules
ALWAYS 15MM OR LESS IN SIZE
What is a renal oncocytoma?
Benign epithelial kidney tumour composed of oncocytic cells
What syndrome should be considered in a patient with many renal oncocytomas?
What is an angiomyolipoma?
Benign mesenchymal kidney tumour composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle and fat
In what condition are angiomyolipomas most likely to appear?
What is a renal cell carcinoma?
Malignancy of epithelial cells of proximal convuluted tubule
What is the main symptom of renal cell carcinoma?
What is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma?
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
(other types = papillary cell + chromophone)
What is the genetic association of clear cell carcinoma?
Loss of chromosome 3p
What is Nephroblastoma also known as?
What is nephroblastoma?
Triphasic kidney tumour of childhood
How does nephroblastoma typically present?
Abdominal mass in children aged 2-5
What is the new name for transitional cell carcinoma?
What are the 2 main treatments of BPH?
5 alpha reductase inhibitors
What score is used for prostatic adenocarcinoma?
What is the most common type of testicular tumour?
90% = germ cell
Recall 2 risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours
Low birth weight
What are the histological subtypes of germ cell testicular tumour?
Yolk Sac Tumour
What is the most useful form of chemo in germ cell testicular tumours?
What are the 3 subtypes of non-germ cell testicular tumours?
Which type of testicular tumour can present with precocious puberty?
What is flat urothelial carcinoma in situ?
Very high grade lesion with high risk of progression
Which testicular germ cell tumour has clear polygonal cells and a lymohcytic inflitrate?