Histopathology 9 - Urological pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology 9 - Urological pathology Deck (32)
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1

What is the most common composition of urinary calculi?

Calcium oxalate

2

What is the most likely cause of calcium oxalate urinary calculi?

Hypercalciuria
Either due to excessive Ca absorption from gut or impaired absorption in nephron

3

What are magnesium ammonium phosphate urinary calculi also known as?

Triple stones

4

What is the cause of triple stones?

A consequence of infection with urease-producing organisms
Urease --> ammonia increase
Ammonia makes urine alkaline --> triple stone precipitation

5

Why might a small urinary stone become symptomatic?

If it gets out of kidney and gets into the ureter - it will cause colic at any point where the ureter bends

6

What type of urinary calculi are caused by gout?

Uric acid stones

7

What is papillary adenoma of the kidney?

Benign epithelial kidney tumour composed of papillae and/or tubules
ALWAYS 15MM OR LESS IN SIZE

8

What is a renal oncocytoma?

Benign epithelial kidney tumour composed of oncocytic cells

9

What syndrome should be considered in a patient with many renal oncocytomas?

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome

10

What is an angiomyolipoma?

Benign mesenchymal kidney tumour composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle and fat

11

In what condition are angiomyolipomas most likely to appear?

Tuberous sclerosis

12

What is a renal cell carcinoma?

Malignancy of epithelial cells of proximal convuluted tubule

13

What is the main symptom of renal cell carcinoma?

Painless haematuria

14

What is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma?

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
(other types = papillary cell + chromophone)

15

What is the genetic association of clear cell carcinoma?

Loss of chromosome 3p

16

What is Nephroblastoma also known as?

Wilm's tumour

17

What is nephroblastoma?

Triphasic kidney tumour of childhood

18

How does nephroblastoma typically present?

Abdominal mass in children aged 2-5

19

What is the new name for transitional cell carcinoma?

Urothelial carcinoma

20

What are the 2 main treatments of BPH?

5 alpha reductase inhibitors
Alpha blockers

21

What score is used for prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Gleason score

22

What is the most common type of testicular tumour?

90% = germ cell

23

Recall 2 risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours

Undescended testes
Low birth weight

24

What are the histological subtypes of germ cell testicular tumour?

Seminoma
Embryonal carcinoma
Post-pubertal teratoma
Yolk Sac Tumour

25

What is the most useful form of chemo in germ cell testicular tumours?

Platinum based

26

What are the 3 subtypes of non-germ cell testicular tumours?

Lymphoma
Leydig cell
Sertoli cell

27

Which type of testicular tumour can present with precocious puberty?

Leydig cell

28

What is flat urothelial carcinoma in situ?

Very high grade lesion with high risk of progression

29

Which testicular germ cell tumour has clear polygonal cells and a lymohcytic inflitrate?

Seminoma

30

Which type of urinary stone is most likely to develop into a massive "staghorn calculus"?

Triple stone

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