Flashcards in Chemical Patholgy 1 - Uric acid metabolism Deck (21)
Recall 3 roles of purines
1. Base in DNA
2. 2nd messengers for cAMP
3. Form part of ATP
Recall the pathway of purine catabolism
Purines --> hypo-xanthine --> xanthine --> uric acid
Xanthine oxidase is involved in the production of both xanthine and urate
Recall the renal handling of urate
Urate is fairly insoluble
It is freely-filtered at the Bowman's capsule
Bizzarely: it is both reabsorbed and re-excreted in the proximal convoluted tubule!
Name one disorder of inborn error of purine
Lesch Nyhan Syndrome
What is the inheritance pattern of Lesch Nyhan syndrome
How does Lesch-Nyhan syndrome first present?
With developmental delay at 6-12 months
What is the mutation that causes Lesch-Nyhan syndrome?
HPRT - an enzyme that is key in purine recycling
Since there is no feedback inhibition on dinovosynthesis of purines, plasma urate increases a LOT
What are the symptoms of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome?
Choreform movements, spasticity and UMN signs with mental retardation
Self-mutilation in 85% :-( They bite their lips and digits with a great deal of force
What type of crystals cause gout?
What are the 2 clinical forms of gout?
Acute - "podagra"
Chronic - "tophaceous"
How should acute gout be treated?
Key thing is to reduce inflammation
1b. Colchicine (this is 2nd line, if NSAIDs contra-indicated)
1c. Glucocorticoids (if all else fails!!)
Nb: if you try to correct urate in the acute phase, you can actually make it worse!!
How should chronic gout be treated?
Need to manage the hyperuricaemia
1. Hydration (water!)
2. Reverse the factors driving urate up
What prescription drug can drive urate up?
What is the mechanism of action of allopurinol?
Inhibits xanthine oxidase
What is the mechanism of action of probenecid?
Increases renal excretion of urate
Recall one very important drug interaction to avoid when prescribing gout drugs
Allopurinol and azothioprine
The intermediary of azothioprine = mercaptopurine - which needs xanthine oxidase to be catabolised
Recall the diagnostic approach for gout
1. History and examination should be sufficient
2. If not clear: TAP effusion
How can gout crystrals be visualised?
View effusion material under polarised light - use RED filter
How can gout and pseudogout crystals be differenitated under the microscope?
Gout crystals = negatively birefringent (BLUE - this is perpendicular to compensator)
Pseudogout crystals - positively birefringent (red)
Which other condition predisposes to pseudogout?