Microbiology 17 - Mycobacterial disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology 17 - Mycobacterial disease Deck (25)
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1

How are mycobacteria classified?

Based on speed of growth
<7 days = fast
>7 days = slow

2

Recall 2 examples of slow-growing mycobacteria

M bovis
M tuberculosis

3

What is the key cell wall component of mycobacteria that makes them so different from other bacteria?

Long chain fatty (mycolic) acids

4

Recall 2 stains that can be used to identify mycobacteria

Auramine
Ziehl Neelsen

5

In which patient group is M. avium complex most common?

HIV positive

6

Which type of mycobacterium is associated with cardiothoracic procedures?

M. chimera

7

Which mycobactrium species is known as the "swimming poool granuloma"?

M. marinum

8

How can M. marinum infection present?

Skin lesions on hands and arms of fish-owners

9

What is the main symptoms of M. ulcerans infection?

Painless, destructive ulcer

10

What type of infection do fast-growing mycobacteria tend to cause?

Skin and soft tissue infections

11

How should rapid-growing mycobacteria be treated?

Macrolide + additional antibiotics based on susceptibility testing

12

What is the most severe form of disease that mycobacterium leprae can cause?

Multibacillary lepromatous

13

Recall some strategies for TB prevention

Contact tracing and treatment of index case
Screening of those considered at risk
Vaccination
Improvement of living conditions

14

What is required for diagnosis of TB?

3 sputum samples - smear them and culture them, NAAT if possible

15

What are the 2 possible tests for latent TB?

Mantoux test
IGRAS (detection of antigen-specific interferon gamma)

16

What duration of treatment should be given in CNS TB?

12 months

17

What is the standard treatment regimen for M. tuberculosis?

2/12 rifampicin, isonoazid, pyrizinamide and ethambutol

4/12 rifampicin and isoniazid

18

What are the main side effects of each of the drugs used to treat M tuberculosis?

Rifampicin: orange secretions
Isoniazid: peripheral neuropathy
Pyrizinamide: hepatotoxicity
Ethambutol: visual disturbance

19

How can multi-drug resistant TB be treated?

More than 18 months treatment with at least 5 drugs

20

Where does TB infection become latent?

Gohn focus/ granuloma

21

What is the name for spinal TB?

Pott's disease

22

Which patients cannot receive the BCG vaccine?

Immunosuppressed patients

23

What treatment is used as TB prophylaxis?

Isoniazid monotherapy

24

Give some classical features of Leprosy

Skin depigmentation
Nodules
Trophic ulcers
Nerve thickening - most disability is due to nerve damage

25

What is the cause of a Buruli ulcer and how does it present?

Mycobacterium ulcerans
Painless nodules progressing to ulceration, scarring and contractures

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