Immunology 1 - The immune response to infection/ primary immune deficiencies part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology 1 - The immune response to infection/ primary immune deficiencies part 1 Deck (32)
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1

What is the main difference in function between neutrophils and macrophages?

Macrophages can present antigen on their surface following phagocytosis, but neutrophils cannot

2

Give two examples of pattern recognition receptor

Toll like receptor
Mannose receptor

3

How is pus formed?

Following phagocytosis, neutrophils die

When they die, they release residual enzymes which causes the liquefication of closely adjacent material

This forms pus

4

What is opsonisation?

Modification of a pathogen to attract it to a NK or phagocytic cell

May be mediated by antibodies, complement components or acute phase proteins

Enables phagocytosis

5

What role do NK cells play in regulating immunity?

Express inhibitory receptors for self-HLA molecules

6

Describe the changes that occurs in dendritic cells following phagocytosis

1. Upregulate expression of HLA-1

2. Express costimulatory molecules

3. Migrate via lymphatics to lymph nodes (mediated by CCR7)

4. Process non-self antigen and present it to T cells in lymph nodes to prime the adaptive immune response

7

Recall 2 functions of CD4+ T lymphocytes

Provide help for development of:
1. Full B cell response
2. Some CD8+ T cell responses

8

Which type of plasma cell is dependent on CD4+ T cells for activation?

IgG

9

Which components of complement comprise the classical pathway?

C1 C2 C4

10

Which components of complement comprise the mannose binding lectin pathway?

C2 C4

11

What is the role of the membrane attack complex formed at the end of the complement pathway?

Makes holes in membranes

12

What is the first class of immunoglobulin to be made in the adaptive immune response?

IgM

13

What is the difference between oxidative and non-oxidative killing?

Oxidative: uses NADPH and hydrochlorous acid
Non-oxidative: uses lysosymes

14

Which form of HLA is recognised by CD4 cells?

HLA-2

15

Which form of HLA is recognised by CD8 cells?

HLA-1

16

Which cytokines induce development of CD4 T cells into Th1 cells?

IL2 and IFN gamma

17

What is the function of Th1 cells?

'Help' CD8 T cell and macropage responses

18

Which cytokines induce development of CD4 T cells into Th17 cells?

IL6 and TGF beta

19

What is the function of Th17 cells?

'Help' neutrophil recruitment

20

Which cytokine induces development of CD4 T cells into Treg cells?

TGF beta

21

Which cytokine induces development of CD4 T cells into follicular T helper cells?

IL6

22

Which type of T cell produces CD25 and FOXP3?

T reg cells

23

By what mechanism do CD8 cells effect their cytotoxicity?

Injection of perforin, which enables granzyme entry
OR
Fas ligand expression

24

Which cytokines are secreted by CD8 T cells?

IFN gamma and TNF alpha

25

How do CD4 cells activate B cells?

Express CD40 ligand, which interacts with CD40 on immature B cell surface, causing the B cell to differentiate

26

Recall the 2 processes that B cells undergo to become mature

1. Class switching
2. Somatic hypermutation

27

Which part of an immunoglobulin determines its class?

Heavy chain

28

Which class of immunoglobin forms a pentamer?

IgM

29

Which class of immunoglobulin forms a dimer?

IgA

30

Which portion of an immunoglobulin mediates pathogen identification?

Fab portion

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