Flashcards in Immunology 1 - The immune response to infection/ primary immune deficiencies part 1 Deck (32)
What is the main difference in function between neutrophils and macrophages?
Macrophages can present antigen on their surface following phagocytosis, but neutrophils cannot
Give two examples of pattern recognition receptor
Toll like receptor
How is pus formed?
Following phagocytosis, neutrophils die
When they die, they release residual enzymes which causes the liquefication of closely adjacent material
This forms pus
What is opsonisation?
Modification of a pathogen to attract it to a NK or phagocytic cell
May be mediated by antibodies, complement components or acute phase proteins
What role do NK cells play in regulating immunity?
Express inhibitory receptors for self-HLA molecules
Describe the changes that occurs in dendritic cells following phagocytosis
1. Upregulate expression of HLA-1
2. Express costimulatory molecules
3. Migrate via lymphatics to lymph nodes (mediated by CCR7)
4. Process non-self antigen and present it to T cells in lymph nodes to prime the adaptive immune response
Recall 2 functions of CD4+ T lymphocytes
Provide help for development of:
1. Full B cell response
2. Some CD8+ T cell responses
Which type of plasma cell is dependent on CD4+ T cells for activation?
Which components of complement comprise the classical pathway?
C1 C2 C4
Which components of complement comprise the mannose binding lectin pathway?
What is the role of the membrane attack complex formed at the end of the complement pathway?
Makes holes in membranes
What is the first class of immunoglobulin to be made in the adaptive immune response?
What is the difference between oxidative and non-oxidative killing?
Oxidative: uses NADPH and hydrochlorous acid
Non-oxidative: uses lysosymes
Which form of HLA is recognised by CD4 cells?
Which form of HLA is recognised by CD8 cells?
Which cytokines induce development of CD4 T cells into Th1 cells?
IL2 and IFN gamma
What is the function of Th1 cells?
'Help' CD8 T cell and macropage responses
Which cytokines induce development of CD4 T cells into Th17 cells?
IL6 and TGF beta
What is the function of Th17 cells?
'Help' neutrophil recruitment
Which cytokine induces development of CD4 T cells into Treg cells?
Which cytokine induces development of CD4 T cells into follicular T helper cells?
Which type of T cell produces CD25 and FOXP3?
T reg cells
By what mechanism do CD8 cells effect their cytotoxicity?
Injection of perforin, which enables granzyme entry
Fas ligand expression
Which cytokines are secreted by CD8 T cells?
IFN gamma and TNF alpha
How do CD4 cells activate B cells?
Express CD40 ligand, which interacts with CD40 on immature B cell surface, causing the B cell to differentiate
Recall the 2 processes that B cells undergo to become mature
1. Class switching
2. Somatic hypermutation
Which part of an immunoglobulin determines its class?
Which class of immunoglobin forms a pentamer?
Which class of immunoglobulin forms a dimer?