Immunology 4 - HIV infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology 4 - HIV infection Deck (33)
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1

Using which enzyme does HIV replicate inside cells?

Reverse Transcriptase

2

How many genes are inside the HIV genome?

9

3

What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV?

Converts RNA into DNA which can be incorporated into host cells' genes

4

What are the two key glycoproteins encoded by the HIV virus?

gp120
gp41

5

Which cell of the immune system is particularly affected by HIV?

CD4+ T cells

6

Recall the receptor and co-receptors for HIV on CD4+ T cells

CD4 receptors
CCR5 CXCR4 coreceptors

7

In people who have natural immunity to HIV, what antibodies may be present in serum?

Anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 (Nt) antibodies

8

How does HIV infection affect CD8+ T cells?

Interferes with activation, as CD4+ T cell and antigen-presenting cell help are not present due to the virus

9

How does HIV infection affect monocytes and dendritic cells?

Not activated by CD4+ T cells and so cannot prime naive CD8+ T cells

10

How does HIV affect immunological memory?

CD4+ T cell memory is lost

CD8 memory cell not activated by antigen-presenting cell

11

Why is there so much variation/mutation in HIV infection?

HIV lacks same checking mechanisms in DNA transcription

12

Why is HIV mutation within the host problematic?

Escape from neutralising antibodies.

Escape from HIV-1-specific T cells.

Resistance and escape from antiretroviral drugs.

13

Recall the 7 steps of the HIV life cycle

1. Attachment/Entry

2. Reverse Transcription and DNA Synthesis

3. Integration

4. Viral Transcription

5. Viral Protein Synthesis

6. Assembly of Virus and Release of Virus

7. Maturation

14

Which drugs are capable of inhibiting the action of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection?

1. Nucleoside analogues
2. Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptases

15

Which class of HIV drugs can prevent integration of viral DNA?

Integrase inhibitors

16

Which HIV drugs can prevent modification of translated viral proteins?

Protease inhibitors

17

What is the median time of infection with HIV to AIDS development?

8-10 years

18

What does it mean if someone is an HIV exposed seronegative individual?

Partner of individual with HIV who remains uninfected

19

What are the 3 major markers used to monitor HIV?

CD8
CD4
Plasma viral load

20

What is long-term nonprogression of HIV?

Individual who is asymptomatic 10 years after infection

21

How can HIV be detected?

anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA)

Viral load (PCR) - more sensitive

ELISA = screening

Western Blot = Confirmatory test

22

How are CD4+ T cell levels measured in HIV infection?

Flow cytometry

23

What are the two methods of testing for ARV resistance?

Phenotypic
Genotypic (involves directly sequencing the amplified genome)

24

Which drugs make up a HAART regimen?

Three or more drugs + one or more binding agents

25

When should HAART treatment be initiated?

Immediately

26

Give 2 examples of NRTI HIV drugs

Zidovudine
Lamivudine

27

Recall 2 examples of protease inhibitor HIV drugs

Tenofovir
Truvada

28

What class of drug is raltegravir?

Integrase inhibitor

29

Which drugs make up the HAART regimen initially?

2 NRTIs + PI

30

What CD4 count defines AIDS?

<200 cells/ nanolitre

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