Histopathology 15 - Cerebrovascular disease and Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology 15 - Cerebrovascular disease and Trauma Deck (19)
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1

What are the 2 main types of cerebral oedema?

Vasogenic (due to disrupted BBB)
Cytotoxic (due to hypoxia/ ischaemia)

2

What is the difference between communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus?

Communicating = problem with CSF resorption into venous sinuses
Non-communicating = Due to obstruction in flow

3

What is the normal range for ICP in a supine adult?

7-15mmHg

4

What is the most important contraindication to lumbar puncture?

Pailloedema

5

What is the most common site for non-traumatic intra-parenchymal haemorrhages?

Basal ganglia

6

What is the biggest risk factor for non-traumatic intra-parenchymal haemorrhage?

Hypertension

7

When do congenital arteriovenous malformations tend to become symptomatic?

Between 2nd and 5th decade

8

What is the management of ruptured congenital arteriovenous malformation?

Surgically remove if poss, this may be radiosurgery
Embolise (to stop bleeding)

9

What is a cavernous angioma?

Hemangioma (vascular tumour), which causes a slowing of blood flow through "caverns"

10

When do cavernous angiomas become symptomatic?

When they bleed - which is at low pressure and usually >50 years

11

What is the most common site of haemorrhage in subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Berry aneurysm rupture
80% at internal carotid artery bifurcation

12

What is the key symptom of subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Sudden onset severe 'thunderclap' headache

13

At what size of Berry aneurysm is the risk of rupture greatest?

>6mm

14

How can Berry aneurysms be fixed?

Platinum coiling

15

In which cerebral artery are infarctions most likely?

Middle cerebral artery

16

What % of TBI patients make a good recovery?

31%

17

What are the clinical signs of skull fracture?

Otorrhoea and rhinorrhoea with straw-coloured fluid

18

What is contusion?

Brain collision with skull which causes surface bruising

19

Which structures are mosta affected by traumatic diffuse axonal injury?

Midline structures eg corpus callosum

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