Flashcards in Histopathology 15 - Cerebrovascular disease and Trauma Deck (19)
What are the 2 main types of cerebral oedema?
Vasogenic (due to disrupted BBB)
Cytotoxic (due to hypoxia/ ischaemia)
What is the difference between communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus?
Communicating = problem with CSF resorption into venous sinuses
Non-communicating = Due to obstruction in flow
What is the normal range for ICP in a supine adult?
What is the most important contraindication to lumbar puncture?
What is the most common site for non-traumatic intra-parenchymal haemorrhages?
What is the biggest risk factor for non-traumatic intra-parenchymal haemorrhage?
When do congenital arteriovenous malformations tend to become symptomatic?
Between 2nd and 5th decade
What is the management of ruptured congenital arteriovenous malformation?
Surgically remove if poss, this may be radiosurgery
Embolise (to stop bleeding)
What is a cavernous angioma?
Hemangioma (vascular tumour), which causes a slowing of blood flow through "caverns"
When do cavernous angiomas become symptomatic?
When they bleed - which is at low pressure and usually >50 years
What is the most common site of haemorrhage in subarachnoid haemorrhage?
Berry aneurysm rupture
80% at internal carotid artery bifurcation
What is the key symptom of subarachnoid haemorrhage?
Sudden onset severe 'thunderclap' headache
At what size of Berry aneurysm is the risk of rupture greatest?
How can Berry aneurysms be fixed?
In which cerebral artery are infarctions most likely?
Middle cerebral artery
What % of TBI patients make a good recovery?
What are the clinical signs of skull fracture?
Otorrhoea and rhinorrhoea with straw-coloured fluid
What is contusion?
Brain collision with skull which causes surface bruising