Flashcards in Histopathology 8 - Renal disease Deck (57)
Which part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
Distal convuluted tubule
What is a "horse shoe kidney"?
Congenital renal fusion
What is the inheritance pattern of adult polycystic kidney disease?
What is the triad of symptoms/signs associated with adult PCKD?
What are the genetic associations of PCKD?
What is the most strongly associated aneurysm with PCKD?
In which patients are kidney cysts most likely to form?
End stage renal failure and on dialysis
How can the causes of acute renal failure be classified?
What is the most common cause of acute renal failure?
Acute tubular injury
How does acute tubular injury affect glomerular filtration?
Blockage of tubules by casts --> leakage into interstitial space --> secondary haemodynamic changes that affect GFR
What is acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis, and what causes it?
Injury to tubules and interstitium that is usually immune but can also be caused by infection/drugs
What is the most common cause of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis?
Drugs (especially NSAIDs)
How does acute glomerulonephritis present?
Urine casts containing erthrocytes and leucocytes
Crescents present when it is bad enough to cause acute renal failure
What is acute crescentic glomerulonephritis?
Immune mediated inflammation of glomerulonephritis with crescents as main histopathological finding
Which aetiologies might cause immune complex associated crescentic glomerulonephritis?
What is anti-GBM disease?
Rare and severe disease caused by Ig directed against the GBM
How can anti-GBM disease affect the lung?
Cross-reaction with alveolar basement membrane leading to pulmonary haemorrhage
What are the features of Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis?
Only scanty glomerular Ig deposits
Usually ANCA associated
What on earth is thrombotic microangiopathy? (no seriously if someone works this out pls pm me)
Damage to endothelium in glomeruli, arterioles and arteries leading to thrombosis??
What is nephrotic syndrome, and what are is its four diagnostic requirements?
Breakdown in selectivity of glomerular filtration barrier leading to protein leak
Recall a pre-renal cause of acute renal failure
Failure of perfusion of kidney
Recall 3 renal causes of acute renal failure
Acute tubular injury
How can acute renal failure be caused post-renally?
How can trauma cause acute renal failure?
Release of myoglobin damages tubular epithelial cells, causing acute tubular injury (rhabodmyolysis)
Which antibodies are present in pauci-immune acute crescentic glomerulonephritis?
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm Ig
How can immune complexes in the glomerulus be identified?
Which syndromes are associated with Pauci-immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis?
Which kidney disease is associated with E coli diarrhoea?
Recall 2 examples of non-immune complex related, primary nephrotic syndrome
Minimal change disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis