Histopathology 8 - Renal disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology 8 - Renal disease Deck (57)
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1

Which part of the nephron is impermeable to water?

Distal convuluted tubule

2

What is a "horse shoe kidney"?

Congenital renal fusion

3

What is the inheritance pattern of adult polycystic kidney disease?

Dominant

4

What is the triad of symptoms/signs associated with adult PCKD?

Hypertension
Flank pain
Haematuria

5

What are the genetic associations of PCKD?

PDK1 PDK2

6

What is the most strongly associated aneurysm with PCKD?

Berry aneurysm

7

In which patients are kidney cysts most likely to form?

End stage renal failure and on dialysis

8

How can the causes of acute renal failure be classified?

Pre-renal/renal/post-renal

9

What is the most common cause of acute renal failure?

Acute tubular injury

10

How does acute tubular injury affect glomerular filtration?

Blockage of tubules by casts --> leakage into interstitial space --> secondary haemodynamic changes that affect GFR

11

What is acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis, and what causes it?

Injury to tubules and interstitium that is usually immune but can also be caused by infection/drugs

12

What is the most common cause of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis?

Drugs (especially NSAIDs)

13

How does acute glomerulonephritis present?

Oligouria

Urine casts containing erthrocytes and leucocytes

Crescents present when it is bad enough to cause acute renal failure

14

What is acute crescentic glomerulonephritis?

Immune mediated inflammation of glomerulonephritis with crescents as main histopathological finding

Includes:
Anti-GBM disease
Pauci-immune disease

15

Which aetiologies might cause immune complex associated crescentic glomerulonephritis?

SLE
IgA nephropathy
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis

16

What is anti-GBM disease?

Rare and severe disease caused by Ig directed against the GBM

17

How can anti-GBM disease affect the lung?

Cross-reaction with alveolar basement membrane leading to pulmonary haemorrhage

18

What are the features of Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis?

Only scanty glomerular Ig deposits

Usually ANCA associated

Vasculitis everywhere

19

What on earth is thrombotic microangiopathy? (no seriously if someone works this out pls pm me)

Damage to endothelium in glomeruli, arterioles and arteries leading to thrombosis??

20

What is nephrotic syndrome, and what are is its four diagnostic requirements?

Breakdown in selectivity of glomerular filtration barrier leading to protein leak

Proteinuria (>3.5g/day)

Hypoalbuminaemia

Oedema

Hyperlipidaemia

21

Recall a pre-renal cause of acute renal failure

Failure of perfusion of kidney

22

Recall 3 renal causes of acute renal failure

Acute tubular injury
Acute glomerulonephritis
Thrombotic microangiopathy

23

How can acute renal failure be caused post-renally?

Obstruction

24

How can trauma cause acute renal failure?

Release of myoglobin damages tubular epithelial cells, causing acute tubular injury (rhabodmyolysis)

25

Which antibodies are present in pauci-immune acute crescentic glomerulonephritis?

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm Ig

26

How can immune complexes in the glomerulus be identified?

Immunohistochemistry
Electron microscopy

27

Which syndromes are associated with Pauci-immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis?

Wegener's
Churg Strauss
Microscopic polyangiopathy

28

Which kidney disease is associated with E coli diarrhoea?

Thrombotic microangiopathy

29

Recall 2 examples of non-immune complex related, primary nephrotic syndrome

Minimal change disease

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

30

Recall an example of a primary cause of nephrotic syndrome that is immune mediated?

Membranous glomerulonephritis

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