Histopathology 14 - Neuro-oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology 14 - Neuro-oncology Deck (29)
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1

Which 3 types of cancer are most likely to metastasise to the brain?

Lung
Breast
Malignant melanoma

2

What is the most common form of primary brain tumour?

Astrocytoma

3

Which genetic syndrome is associated with meningioma?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

4

What type of tumour is being described by "a ventricular tumour that presents with hydrocephalus"?

Ependyoma

5

Which brain tumour is an indolent CNS tumour of childhood?

Pilocystic astrocytoma

6

Which type of brain tumour is soft, gelatinous and can become calcified?

Oligodendroma

7

Which CNS tumour does Von Hippel-Lindau predispose to?

Hemangioblastoma

8

Which CNS tumour does tuberous sclerosis predispose to?

Giant cell astrocytoma

9

Recall the order in which imaging should be performed in CNS tumour investigation

1. CT
2. MRI (T1 and without contrast)
3. MR spectroscopy for gliomas (useful prognostically)

10

Recall the 4 factors that guide grading of brain tumours

Morphology
Proliferative activity
Cell differentiation
Necrosis

11

Recall the survival prediction for each grade of CNS tuour

Grade 1 = longterm
Grade 2 = >5 years
Grade 3 = <5 years
Grade 4 = <1 year

12

What are the 2 broad subtypes of glial tumours, and in which age groups are they typically seen?

Diffuse (adults) or circumscribed (children)

13

What grade are circumscribed glial tumours?

1 or 2

14

What is the most common type of circumscribed glial tumour?

Pilocystic adenoma

15

Mutation of which gene is associated with circumscribed glial tumours?

BRAF gene mutation

16

Describe the progression of all diffuse glial cell tumours

Cannot be removed surgically, so all progress to glioblastoma within 10 years

17

Which gene mutation is associated with diffuse glial cell tumour prediliction?

IDH gene

18

How can glioblastoma and diffuse astrocytoma be differentiated on CT?

Glioblastoma = enhancing
Diffuse astrocytoma = non-enhancing

19

Which gene mutation is always seen in oligodendroglioma?

IDH gene

20

What is the WHO grade of oligodendroglioma?

Stage 2 - 3

21

What is the pathognemonic histological finding in oligodendroglioma?

Fried egg cells

22

How is oligodendroglioma most often managed?

Usually appropriate for surgical excision as often well-circumscribed

23

What must be investigated in the case of multiple meningiomas?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

24

What is the most important factor to assess when grading meningiomas?

Mitotic activity

25

What is the most common type of embryonal CNS tumour?

Medulloblastoma

26

Where do medulloblastomas always form?

In cerebellum near 4th ventricle

27

What is the pathognemonic histological finding in medulloblastoma?

Very poorly differentiated 'small round blue cells'

28

Which subtype of medulloblastoma has the best prognosis?

WNT-activated subtype

29

What is the basis of epigenetic profiling in CNS tumours?

DNA methylation of CpG islands

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