Haematology 6 - Haematology in systemic disease and intro to haematopathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Haematology 6 - Haematology in systemic disease and intro to haematopathology Deck (34)
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1

What disease is characterised by primary raised erythrocytes?

Polycythaemia vera

2

What disease is characterised by a secondary reduction in erythrocytes?

Auto-immune haemolytic anaemia

3

Which disease is caused by a genetic deficiency of factor IX?

Haemophilia B

4

Which disease is caused by a genetic excess of factor IX?

Factor IX Padua

5

Which disease is caused by a genetic deficiency of erythrocytes?

Sickle cell disease/ HbS (beta globin gene mutation)

6

How can haemophilia B be treated using gene therapy?

Factor IX Padua gene can be put into adenoviruses as a vector, to cause factor IX production

7

Which disease is caused by an acquired mutation in JAK2?

Polycythaemia vera

8

Which disease is caused by an acquired mutation in PIG A?

PNH paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

9

What is a raised factor VIII likely to be secondary to?

An inflammatory process

10

How can haemophilia be acquired? (Rather than genetic)

Auto-immune disorder common in elderly - body produces autoantibodies directed against factor VIII

11

Recall 2 secondary causes of raised erythrocytes?

Altitude
EPO-secreting tumour

12

Recall 3 secondary causes of reduced erythrocytes

Bone marrow inflitration
Deficiency (B12/Fe)
Haemolytic anaemia

13

What is the most likely cause of iron deficiency anaemia?

Bleeding (until proven otherwise!)

14

How is iron deficiency anaemia diagnosed?

Ferritin and transferrin saturation: both would be low

15

Recall 3 types of cancer that may present first with an iron deficiency anaemia?

Gastric
Renal
Bladder

16

What are the morphological features of leuco-erythroblastic anaemia?

Erythroblasts (nucleated red blood cells and tear drop red blood cells)
Immature myeloid cells

17

What are the causes of leucoerythroblastic anaemia?

Infection: miliary TB/severe fungal infection
Malignancy: myelofibrosis/ leukaemia/lymphoma/myeloma/ metastatic Ca
USUALLY A MALIGNANCY INVOLVING BM

18

What are the laboratory features of haemolytic anaemia?

Anaemia (though may be compensated)

Reticulocytosis

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia

LDH raised

Reduced haptoglobins

19

Which test detects immune haemolytic anaemia?

DAT/Coombs

20

Recall 2 malignancies that can cause immune haemolytic anaemia?

Lymphoma
CLL

21

What type of anaemia is caused by mycoplasma infection?

Immune haemolytic anaemia

22

What are the 2 main causes of non-immune/ Dat neg haemolytic anaemia?

1. Malaria
2. MAHA - microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

23

Recall 2 causes of MAHA

1. Underlying adenocarcinoma
2. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

24

How can CLL and AML be distinguished on blood film?

CLL has mature cells, AML has immature cells

25

What is the main cause of neutrophilia?

Pyogenic infection

26

How do you distinguish a reactive neutrophilia vs a malignant one?

Reactive neutrophilia has a limit (they won't be sky high)

No immature cells in reactive neutrophilia

Malignant has immature cells + either basophils (indicative of CML) or myeloblasts (indicative of AML)

27

What is the most common cause of a reactive lymphopaenia?

HIV

28

In which 2 conditions might smear cells appear on the blood film?

CLL
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

29

Name 2 primary causes of haemolytic anaemia

Any of:
Hereditary spherocytosis
G6PD deficiency
Sickle cell
Thalassaemia

30

How can DIC cause MAHA?

Procoagulant factors released

In places where blood moves slowly (eg small vasculature) there is platelet deposition and fibrinogen is converted to fibrin

Red cells pushed through fibrin web and fragmented

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