Flashcards in Haematology 6 - Haematology in systemic disease and intro to haematopathology Deck (34)
What disease is characterised by primary raised erythrocytes?
What disease is characterised by a secondary reduction in erythrocytes?
Auto-immune haemolytic anaemia
Which disease is caused by a genetic deficiency of factor IX?
Which disease is caused by a genetic excess of factor IX?
Factor IX Padua
Which disease is caused by a genetic deficiency of erythrocytes?
Sickle cell disease/ HbS (beta globin gene mutation)
How can haemophilia B be treated using gene therapy?
Factor IX Padua gene can be put into adenoviruses as a vector, to cause factor IX production
Which disease is caused by an acquired mutation in JAK2?
Which disease is caused by an acquired mutation in PIG A?
PNH paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
What is a raised factor VIII likely to be secondary to?
An inflammatory process
How can haemophilia be acquired? (Rather than genetic)
Auto-immune disorder common in elderly - body produces autoantibodies directed against factor VIII
Recall 2 secondary causes of raised erythrocytes?
Recall 3 secondary causes of reduced erythrocytes
Bone marrow inflitration
What is the most likely cause of iron deficiency anaemia?
Bleeding (until proven otherwise!)
How is iron deficiency anaemia diagnosed?
Ferritin and transferrin saturation: both would be low
Recall 3 types of cancer that may present first with an iron deficiency anaemia?
What are the morphological features of leuco-erythroblastic anaemia?
Erythroblasts (nucleated red blood cells and tear drop red blood cells)
Immature myeloid cells
What are the causes of leucoerythroblastic anaemia?
Infection: miliary TB/severe fungal infection
Malignancy: myelofibrosis/ leukaemia/lymphoma/myeloma/ metastatic Ca
USUALLY A MALIGNANCY INVOLVING BM
What are the laboratory features of haemolytic anaemia?
Anaemia (though may be compensated)
Which test detects immune haemolytic anaemia?
Recall 2 malignancies that can cause immune haemolytic anaemia?
What type of anaemia is caused by mycoplasma infection?
Immune haemolytic anaemia
What are the 2 main causes of non-immune/ Dat neg haemolytic anaemia?
2. MAHA - microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia
Recall 2 causes of MAHA
1. Underlying adenocarcinoma
2. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
How can CLL and AML be distinguished on blood film?
CLL has mature cells, AML has immature cells
What is the main cause of neutrophilia?
How do you distinguish a reactive neutrophilia vs a malignant one?
Reactive neutrophilia has a limit (they won't be sky high)
No immature cells in reactive neutrophilia
Malignant has immature cells + either basophils (indicative of CML) or myeloblasts (indicative of AML)
What is the most common cause of a reactive lymphopaenia?
In which 2 conditions might smear cells appear on the blood film?
Name 2 primary causes of haemolytic anaemia