Microbiology 2 - Antimicrobial agents 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology 2 - Antimicrobial agents 1 Deck (63)
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1

What is the broad mechanism of action of beta lactams?

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

2

What is the broad mechanism of action of glycopeptide antibiotics?

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

3

What 3 groups of antibiotics are classified as beta lactams?

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems

4

Name 2 glycopeptide antibiotics

Vancomycin
Teicoplanin

5

Describe the mechanism of action of beta lactams

Inhibits transpeptidase, which is an enzyme that forms cross links during the formation of the cell wall.
The resulting cell wall is therefore weak, and so the bacteria lyse because of osmotic pressure.

6

How does the cell wall of gram pos and gram neg bacteria differ?

Gram pos has peptidoglycan

7

What bacteria is penicillin active against?

Gram pos

8

What bacteria is amoxicillin active against?

Broad spectrum: gram pos and many gram neg

9

Is streptococci gram pos or neg?

Gram pos

10

Which beta lactam antibiotic is effective against pseudomonas?

Piperacillin

11

How can beta lactam resistance be overcome?

Include a beta lactamase inhibitor
Eg. Clavulanic acid + amoxicllin (in co-amoxiclav)

12

Is pseudomonas gram pos or gram neg?

Gram neg
(Pseudo"moan"as - 'moan' = negative)

13

Is neisseria meningitis gram pos or gram neg?

Gram neg
(Neisseria starts with N = negative)

14

Recall an antibiotic that is associated with C. difficile

Ceftriaxone (cephalosporin)

15

Which beta lactam antibiotics are stable to ESBL organisms?

Carbapenems

16

Recall a caution of beta lactam antibiotic

Excreted renally so reduce dose if renal impairment

17

What type of bacteria are glycopeptides effective against?

Gram pos only - they are large molecules so can't penetrate gram neg cell wall

18

What are glycopeptides particularly useful for?

MRSA infection

19

What is a caution of glycopeptide antibiotics?

They are nephrotoxic

20

Recall the broad mechanism of action of glycopeptide antibiotics

Prevent peptide cross links in cell wall

21

Recall the broad mechanism of action of aminoglycosides

Bind to 30s ribosomal subunit, preventing elongation of polypeptide chain

22

Recall 2 examples of aminoglycoside antibiotics

gentamicin
amikacin

23

What type of bacteria are aminoglycoside antibiotics effective against?

Gram neg

24

Recall 2 toxicities of aminoglycosides

Ototoxicity
Nephrotoxicity

25

What type of bacteria are macrolides effective against?

Gram pos

26

What are macrolides particularly useful for?

Mild staph or strep infections in patients who are allergic to penicillin

27

Recall 2 macrolide antibiotics

Azithromycin
Clarithromycin

28

What type of bacteria are tetracylines effective against?

They are broad spectrum

29

Recall a class of antibiotic you should never give to children or pregnant women

Tetracyclines

30

Recall one side effect of tetracycline antibiotics

Light-sensitive rash

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