Histopathology 10 - Upper GI disease Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Pathology ICSM - DM me for full access > Histopathology 10 - Upper GI disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histopathology 10 - Upper GI disease Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the "Z line" in the GI tract?

Normal appearance of squamo-columnar junction

2

Where is the cardia portion of the stomach?

Junction between oesophagus and stomach

3

What are the 3 layers of the stomach wall?

Gastric mucosa (columnar)
Lamina propria (containing glands)
Muscularis mucosae

nb: difference between mucosa and mucosae

4

In a normal duodenum, what is the villous:crypt ratio?

2:1

5

Where are goblet cells usually found?

Intestine

6

What is the most common cause of acute oesophagitis?

GORD

7

If reflux oesophagitis causes a perforation of the oesophagus, what will be the result?

Mediastinitis

8

What are the most common complications to remember of most GI pathologies?

Ulceration
Haemorrhage
Perforation
Stricture

9

How is Barrett's oesophagus different from metaplasia?

Reversible

10

What is gastric metaplasia?

Metaplastic change in oesophagus without goblet cells

11

What is intestinal type metaplasia?

Replacement of squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium WITH goblet cells present

12

What is the most common sequence of pathological progression to cancer in the upper GIT?

Metaplasia --> dysplasia --> Cancer

13

What is the most common type of oesophageal carcinoma in developed coutries?

Adenocarcinoma

14

Where does adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus usually develop?

Lower oesophagus

15

Which type of oesophageal cancer is most strongly associated with GORD?

Adenocarcinoma

16

What is the most common type of oesophageal cancer in developing coutries?

Squamous cell carcinoma

17

Which type of oesophageal cancer is most associated with smoking and alcohol?

Squamous cell carcinoma

18

Where in the oesophagus does squamous cell carcinoma tend to present?

Mid/lower oesophagus

19

Why is prognosis for oesophageal cancer particularly poor?

Most patients are not suitable for resection surgery

20

What other condition are oesophageal varices particularly associated with?

Portal vein stenosis

21

What are the 3 main causes of acute gastritis?

Aspirin/NSAIDs
Alcohol
H pylori

22

What are the 3 major causes of chronic gastritis?

ABC
Autoimmune (antiparietal cell Ig)
Bacterial (H pylori, affects antrum)
Chemical (NSAIDs, bile reflux, affects antrum)

23

Which types of neoplasm is H pylori associated with?

Adenocarcinoma
Lymphoma (MALToma)

24

How do H pylori inject toxin into the mucosa?

Via cag-A needle appendage

25

Which strain of H pylori is associated with more aggressive chronic gastritis?

cag-A positive

26

Why might you biopsy a gastric ulcer?

ALL gastric ulcers should be biopsied to exclude malignancy

27

What will be the result of a perforated gastric ulcer?

Peritonitis

28

What is gastric epithelial dysplasia?

Abnormal epithelial pattern of growth

29

What is the key cytological feature of gastric epithelial dysplasia?

High nuclear cytoplasmic ratio

30

What is the difference between gastic dysplasia and gastric Ca?

Invasion of basement membrane

Decks in Year 5 Pathology ICSM - DM me for full access Class (85):