Flashcards in Histopathology 10 - Upper GI disease Deck (50)
What is the "Z line" in the GI tract?
Normal appearance of squamo-columnar junction
Where is the cardia portion of the stomach?
Junction between oesophagus and stomach
What are the 3 layers of the stomach wall?
Gastric mucosa (columnar)
Lamina propria (containing glands)
nb: difference between mucosa and mucosae
In a normal duodenum, what is the villous:crypt ratio?
Where are goblet cells usually found?
What is the most common cause of acute oesophagitis?
If reflux oesophagitis causes a perforation of the oesophagus, what will be the result?
What are the most common complications to remember of most GI pathologies?
How is Barrett's oesophagus different from metaplasia?
What is gastric metaplasia?
Metaplastic change in oesophagus without goblet cells
What is intestinal type metaplasia?
Replacement of squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium WITH goblet cells present
What is the most common sequence of pathological progression to cancer in the upper GIT?
Metaplasia --> dysplasia --> Cancer
What is the most common type of oesophageal carcinoma in developed coutries?
Where does adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus usually develop?
Which type of oesophageal cancer is most strongly associated with GORD?
What is the most common type of oesophageal cancer in developing coutries?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of oesophageal cancer is most associated with smoking and alcohol?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Where in the oesophagus does squamous cell carcinoma tend to present?
Why is prognosis for oesophageal cancer particularly poor?
Most patients are not suitable for resection surgery
What other condition are oesophageal varices particularly associated with?
Portal vein stenosis
What are the 3 main causes of acute gastritis?
What are the 3 major causes of chronic gastritis?
Autoimmune (antiparietal cell Ig)
Bacterial (H pylori, affects antrum)
Chemical (NSAIDs, bile reflux, affects antrum)
Which types of neoplasm is H pylori associated with?
How do H pylori inject toxin into the mucosa?
Via cag-A needle appendage
Which strain of H pylori is associated with more aggressive chronic gastritis?
Why might you biopsy a gastric ulcer?
ALL gastric ulcers should be biopsied to exclude malignancy
What will be the result of a perforated gastric ulcer?
What is gastric epithelial dysplasia?
Abnormal epithelial pattern of growth
What is the key cytological feature of gastric epithelial dysplasia?
High nuclear cytoplasmic ratio