Histopathology 4 - Endocrine disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology 4 - Endocrine disease Deck (24)
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1

What are the most common causes of hyper- and hypo-pituitarism?

Hyperpituitarism: functional adenoma
Hypopituitarism: nonsecretory adenomas/ ischaemic necrosis/ surgery

2

What are the 3 symptoms of local mass effect of pituitary tumours?

Bitemporal hemianopia
Elevated ICP
Obstructive hydrocephalus

3

Recall 4 differentials for primary hyperthyroidism

1. Grave's
2. Hyperfunctioning multinodular goitre
3. Hyperfunctioning adenoma
4. Thyroiditis

4

What is the cause of secondary hyperthyroidism?

TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (rare)

5

How can struma ovarii cause thyroid disease?

Ovarian teratomas can secrete ectopic thyroxine

6

What autoimmune condition can cause hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto's

7

Differentiate the type of auto-antibodies involved in Grave's vs Hashimoto's

Grave's: anti-TSH
Hashimoto's: anti-TPO and anti-TG (thyroglobulin)

8

What is the histological appearance of a Hashimoto's thyroid?

Lymphocyte aggregates and transformed follicular cells

9

What are the main symptoms of Hashimoto's?

Clinically hypothyroid
Painless goitre

10

Recall 4 differentials for the cause of hypothyroidism

1. Postablative
2. Iodine deficiency
3. Congenital biosynthetic defect
4. Autoimmune (Hashimoto's)

11

What is a thyroid adenoma?

Benign neoplasm of follicular thyroid epithelium

12

How are thyroid adenomas diagnosed?

FNA and cytology

13

What is the most common type of thyroid adenoma?

Papillary

14

What are the key histological features of papillary thyroid cancer?

Optically clear nuclei
Psammoma bodies

15

Which type of thyroid adenoma is associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia?

Medullary

16

Which type of thyroid adenoma is most aggressive?

Aplastic

17

What are the 4 subtypes of thyroid adenoma?

Follicular
Papillary
Medullary
Anaplastic

18

What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Solitary adenoma

19

What is the most common symptom of hyperparathyroidism?

Clinically silent hypercalcaemia (so not really a symptom)

20

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism almost always caused by?

Renal failure

21

Recall 3 possible causes of hypoparathyroidism

Surgical ablation
Congenital absence
Auto-immune

22

Recall 4 possible symptoms of hypoparathyroidism

Those of hypocalcaemia:
Muscle spasms/ tetany
Cardiac arrhythmias
Fits
Cataracts

23

Recall the synthetic function of each zone of the adrenals

Medulla: Noradrenaline and adrenaline
Reticularis: androgens
Fasciculata: glucocorticoids
Glomerulosa: aldosterone

24

What is Waterhouse-Friedrichson syndrome?

Adrenal insufficiency with sepsis and DIC

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