Flashcards in Histopathology 4 - Endocrine disease Deck (24)
What are the most common causes of hyper- and hypo-pituitarism?
Hyperpituitarism: functional adenoma
Hypopituitarism: nonsecretory adenomas/ ischaemic necrosis/ surgery
What are the 3 symptoms of local mass effect of pituitary tumours?
Recall 4 differentials for primary hyperthyroidism
2. Hyperfunctioning multinodular goitre
3. Hyperfunctioning adenoma
What is the cause of secondary hyperthyroidism?
TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (rare)
How can struma ovarii cause thyroid disease?
Ovarian teratomas can secrete ectopic thyroxine
What autoimmune condition can cause hypothyroidism?
Differentiate the type of auto-antibodies involved in Grave's vs Hashimoto's
Hashimoto's: anti-TPO and anti-TG (thyroglobulin)
What is the histological appearance of a Hashimoto's thyroid?
Lymphocyte aggregates and transformed follicular cells
What are the main symptoms of Hashimoto's?
Recall 4 differentials for the cause of hypothyroidism
2. Iodine deficiency
3. Congenital biosynthetic defect
4. Autoimmune (Hashimoto's)
What is a thyroid adenoma?
Benign neoplasm of follicular thyroid epithelium
How are thyroid adenomas diagnosed?
FNA and cytology
What is the most common type of thyroid adenoma?
What are the key histological features of papillary thyroid cancer?
Optically clear nuclei
Which type of thyroid adenoma is associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia?
Which type of thyroid adenoma is most aggressive?
What are the 4 subtypes of thyroid adenoma?
What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?
What is the most common symptom of hyperparathyroidism?
Clinically silent hypercalcaemia (so not really a symptom)
What is secondary hyperparathyroidism almost always caused by?
Recall 3 possible causes of hypoparathyroidism
Recall 4 possible symptoms of hypoparathyroidism
Those of hypocalcaemia:
Muscle spasms/ tetany
Recall the synthetic function of each zone of the adrenals
Medulla: Noradrenaline and adrenaline