Histopathology 12 - Respiratory pathology Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Pathology ICSM > Histopathology 12 - Respiratory pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histopathology 12 - Respiratory pathology Deck (28)
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1

What are the 2 types of causes of pulmonary oedema?

1. Leaky capillaries (drugs, inhalation of particles, pancreatitis)
2. Back pressure from a failing left ventricle (left heart failure)

2

How does diffuse alveolar damage appear on CXR?

Firm and expanded lungs

3

What are the acute features of the airway in asthma?

Acute bronchospasm
Acute mucosal oedema
Inflammation

4

What are the chronic features of the airway in asthma?

Muscular hypertrophy
Airway narrowing
Mucus plugging

5

What are the features of COPD?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema

6

Describe the features of chronic bronchitis

Chronic cough productive of sputum
Most days for at least 3 months over at least 2 consecutive years

7

How does chronic hypoxia affect the heart?

Pulmonary hypertension ---> right heart failure

8

What is emphysema?

Permanent loss of the alveolar parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchiole

9

What is the genetic association of emphysema?

Alpha 1 anti-trypsin

10

Recall the pathophysiology of emphysema

Smoking causes inflammation
Neutrophil and macrophage involvement
Proteases recruited
Breakdown of epithelium

11

What does lung bullous rupture cause?

Pneumothorax

12

What is bronchiectasis?

Permanent abnormal dilatation of bronchi with inflammation and fibrosis into adjacent parenchyma

13

Recall the complications of bronchiectasis

Haemoptysis
Pulmonary HTN
RHF
Amyloidosis secondary to chronic inflammation

14

Which condition has the strongest association with bronchiectasis?

Cystic fibrosis

15

What is bronchopneumonia?

Inflammation centred around airway

16

Where does bronchopneumonia often affect?

Lower lobes

17

Which type of pneumonia has become much rarer since ABx have been in use?

Lobar pneumonia

18

What is empyema?

Infected pleural effusion

19

Which type of pneumonia is most likely to cause interstitial inflammation?

Atypical pneumonias

20

What are the most common lung tumours?

Epithelial tumours - non small cell and small cell

21

What are the 3 subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer?

Adenocarcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Large cell carcinoma

22

Which 2 types of lung cancer are most associated with smoking?

Squamous cell
Small cell

23

Where is squamous cell carcinoma most likely to develop in the lung?

Centrally

24

Where do adenocarcinomas typically develop?

Peripherally

25

Which mutations are smokers most likely to develop in adenocarcinomas?

K ras
p53

26

Which mutations are non-smokers most likely to develop in adenocarcinomas?

EGFR

27

Which type of lung cancer is assoiated with the most paraneoplastic syndromes?

Small cell

28

Which mutations are most likely to develop in squamous cell carcinomas?

They're not - it's the adenocarcinomas that tend to get the mutations

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