Flashcards in Histopathology 12 - Respiratory pathology Deck (28)
What are the 2 types of causes of pulmonary oedema?
1. Leaky capillaries (drugs, inhalation of particles, pancreatitis)
2. Back pressure from a failing left ventricle (left heart failure)
How does diffuse alveolar damage appear on CXR?
Firm and expanded lungs
What are the acute features of the airway in asthma?
Acute mucosal oedema
What are the chronic features of the airway in asthma?
What are the features of COPD?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Describe the features of chronic bronchitis
Chronic cough productive of sputum
Most days for at least 3 months over at least 2 consecutive years
How does chronic hypoxia affect the heart?
Pulmonary hypertension ---> right heart failure
What is emphysema?
Permanent loss of the alveolar parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchiole
What is the genetic association of emphysema?
Alpha 1 anti-trypsin
Recall the pathophysiology of emphysema
Smoking causes inflammation
Neutrophil and macrophage involvement
Breakdown of epithelium
What does lung bullous rupture cause?
What is bronchiectasis?
Permanent abnormal dilatation of bronchi with inflammation and fibrosis into adjacent parenchyma
Recall the complications of bronchiectasis
Amyloidosis secondary to chronic inflammation
Which condition has the strongest association with bronchiectasis?
What is bronchopneumonia?
Inflammation centred around airway
Where does bronchopneumonia often affect?
Which type of pneumonia has become much rarer since ABx have been in use?
What is empyema?
Infected pleural effusion
Which type of pneumonia is most likely to cause interstitial inflammation?
What are the most common lung tumours?
Epithelial tumours - non small cell and small cell
What are the 3 subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Large cell carcinoma
Which 2 types of lung cancer are most associated with smoking?
Where is squamous cell carcinoma most likely to develop in the lung?
Where do adenocarcinomas typically develop?
Which mutations are smokers most likely to develop in adenocarcinomas?
Which mutations are non-smokers most likely to develop in adenocarcinomas?
Which type of lung cancer is assoiated with the most paraneoplastic syndromes?