Flashcards in 2.6.2 Developmental Psychology & Kohlberg Deck (37):
what does development refer to?
change in our skills and abilities overtime
what studies do psychologists use to look at development overtime?
longitudinal (time consuming but detailed)
cross-sectional (quick, individual differences)
what was Kohlberg's aim?
to study how a child's sense of right and wrong changes as they get older
why is Kohlberg's research considered to be cognitive?
focuses on the way we think about situations in terms of right and wrong and how this changes
(methodology) what research method did Kohlberg use?
longitudinal cross cultural study (12 years)
in which he used interviews
(methodology) who were Kohlberg's particpants?
age 10-16, 22-28
(methodology)where were Kohlberg's participants from?
75 from America
some from Britain, Canada, Taiwan, Turkey and Mexico
(procedure) what did Kohlberg create?
9 hypothetical moral dilemma scenarios
(procedure) how many of the scenarios were presented to each participant?
(procedure) once the participant had read the dilemma what were they asked to do?
discuss the dilemma prompted by a set of open questions
(procedure) give an example of a moral dilemma:
expensive cancer drug and dying wife
boy saving money for camping his father asked for it for a fishing trip
(procedure) give some examples of the questions used in the father-son money saving dilemma:
should he give the money to his father?
what should be the most important thing in their relationship?
does the father have the authority to ask for the money?
(procedure) what moral aspects did the dilemmas involve?
(procedure) what were the boys answers and reasonings used to do?
analyse and identify common themes
(procedure) analysing qualitative data for themes makes the research what?
a content analysis
(procedure) when did Kohlberg meet up with the boys?
every 3 years
(findings) what were the 6 universal stages Kohlberg proposed?
punishment and obedience
conforming to will of group
law and order
(findings) in the punishment and obedience stage how do people behave? (1)
in a way that avoids punishment
(findings) in the personal usefulness stage how is right and wrong determined? (2)
by what is rewarded
(findings) in the conforming to the will of the group stage how do people behave? (3)
in a way that brings approval
(findings) in the law and order stage behaviour is based on what? (4)
following social rules
(findings) in the social contract stage people recognise what? (5)
laws can be changed and some values are more important than laws
(findings) in the personal conscience stage moral judgement is based on what? (6)
universal human rights
(cross cultural findings) American boys aged 10-13 tended to give what stage responses?
(cross cultural findings) American boys aged 13-16 tended to give what stage responses?
(cross cultural findings) American boys aged 16 gave what stage responses?
5, rarely 6
(cross cultural findings) Taiwan and Mexico showed similar results except development was what?
(cross cultural findings) boys in rural areas e.g. isolated villages in Turkey showed what?
slower development through stages
(cross cultural findings) across all cultures children from which class were seen as more morally advanced?
(cross cultural findings) what was found amongst religion?
no important differences in moral development
(conclusions) Kohlberg said moral development occurs in a series of what?
(conclusions) a person can only pass through a stage what?
one at a time
(conclusions) as age increases so does what?
(conclusions) not everyone will reach where?
(conclusions) each stage is more what than the one before?
(conclusions) moral development is what u?