Flashcards in 3.1.5 Agonist & Antagonist Evaluation (Add) Deck (48):
(agonist) NICE assessed 31 reviews into the effectiveness of methadone including what?
27 randomised controlled trials
(agonist - methadone) what is a randomised controlled trial?
one group is allocated to placebo and one experimental, who ends up where is random
(agonist - methadone) NICE found higher levels of what of those using methadone compared to placebo?
higher levels of retention
(agonist - methadone) NICE found lower levels of what of those using methadone compared to placebo?
lower levels of opiod use
(agonist - methadone) NICE research suggests what about the effectiveness of methadone?
more effective than placebo in stopping opiod usage
(agonist) a 2006 meta analysis of studies into effectiveness found methadone is effective as long as dosage is what?
(agonist - methadone) what is a meta analysis?
gathering of all existing data e.g. on a treatment and analysing it
(agonist) what is buprenorphine?
milder alternative to methadone
(agonist) what properties does buprenorphine have?
agonist and antagonist
(agonist) explain what is means that buprenorphine had both agonist and antagonist properties?
it can bind to a receptor and imitate the action of a substance but it can also block the action of a substance
(agonist - methadone) a study analysing data from over 5 years concluded buprenorphine is how many times safer than methadone?
(agonist - methadone) why is buprenorphine safer than methadone?
ceiling effect - less risk of overdose
once a certain amount has been taken increasing dosage has no further effect
(agonist - methadone) even though buprenorphine is safer why is methadone the preferred treatment?
allows for dosage to be increased to a point where no withdrawal symptoms are seen
even at the ceiling effect of buprenorphine withdrawal symptoms may be seen
(antagonist - naltrexone) NICE reviewed how many studies concerning the effectiveness of naltrexone for heroin addiction?
(antagonist - naltrexone) what did NICE find in their review of studies into effectiveness of naltrexone?
no difference between naltrexone and control treatments for retention on treatment programmes
(antagonist - naltrexone) what does NICE research suggest about naltrexone?
no more effective in treating addiction than other treatments
(antagonist - naltrexone) in NICEs research naltrexone was associated with a reduction in what?
(antagonist - naltrexone) NICE found naltrexone was associated with a reduction in relapse rates particularly in patients who were what?
offered extra support
(antagonist - naltrexone) NICEs findings on naltrexone and reduced relapse rates suggest what?
naltrexone is effective in preventing relapse particularly when other support is made available
(antagonist - naltrexone) Lahti et al tested effectiveness of naltrexone on a sample of who?
(antagonist - naltrexone) Lahti et al - gamblers were instructed to take naltrexone when?
before gambling or when feeling an urge to gamble
(antagonist - naltrexone) what did Lahti find a significant decrease in?
gambling levels when taking naltrexone
(antagonist - naltrexone) what does Lahti's research suggest about naltrexone?
it may be effective in the treatment of gambling addictions
(antagonist - naltrexone) what is an issue of Lahti et al's research?
small sample of gamblers
they themselves said more research was needed
what is an issue of studies not following up over a long period of time?
doesn't show if drugs decrease in their effectiveness overtime
doesn't show if relapse occurs
addicts often experience other social and psychological issues in addition to addiction what is an issue of this?
can influence results of effectiveness of the drugs
(ethics) methadone is a sedative drug, what does its side effects include?
suppressed nervous system - and breathing
slowed body functioning
reduced physical and psychological pain
risk of fatal overdose
(ethics) in 2014 how many deaths in the UK was methadone responsible for?
(ethics) many of those receiving methadone remain on it for a long time and without the proper support what do they struggle to do?
make it to the detoxification/maintenance stage
(ethics) critics of methadone say all it does is what?
create another addiction
(ethics) what are some common side effects of naltrexone?
(ethics) mild opiate withdrawal symptoms can occur with naltrexone such as what?
(ethics) what can sudden side effects of naltrexone include?
(ethics) large doses of naltrexone can increase the risk of what?
(ethics) with side effects, administering these drugs may cause more what?
harm than good
(social)breaking the habit report - how much is spent on treating drug users with substitutes like methadone and keeping them on benefits?
(social)breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in benefits?
(social)breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in childcare?
(social) breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in treatment?
(social) breaking the habit report - what would be more effective in getting addicts off drugs completely?
(social) breaking the habit report - prescribing methadone delays recovery where rehabilitation would do what?
free individuals from dependency on drugs
(social) drugscope said the report overestimated what?
the cost of prescribing methadone
(social) drugscope highlighted the national audit office described drug treatment as good value for money as methadone makes addicts more able to what?
function in society and manage their addiction
(social) national treatment agency report - treating heroin users with methadone immediately reduces what?
their criminality - positive influence on society
(social) national treatment agency report - rates of offending are reduced by how much when addicts are in treatment?
(social) breaking the habit report - despite the availability of methadone what has continued to rise?
drug related reoffending
(social) setting up methadone programmes centred in one area may lead to what?
addicts gathering in a certain area, possibly increasing crime and antisocial behaviour