3.1.5 Agonist & Antagonist Evaluation (Add) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1.5 Agonist & Antagonist Evaluation (Add) Deck (48):
1

(agonist) NICE assessed 31 reviews into the effectiveness of methadone including what?

27 randomised controlled trials

2

(agonist - methadone) what is a randomised controlled trial?

one group is allocated to placebo and one experimental, who ends up where is random

3

(agonist - methadone) NICE found higher levels of what of those using methadone compared to placebo?

higher levels of retention

4

(agonist - methadone) NICE found lower levels of what of those using methadone compared to placebo?

lower levels of opiod use

5

(agonist - methadone) NICE research suggests what about the effectiveness of methadone?

more effective than placebo in stopping opiod usage

6

(agonist) a 2006 meta analysis of studies into effectiveness found methadone is effective as long as dosage is what?

adequate

7

(agonist - methadone) what is a meta analysis?

gathering of all existing data e.g. on a treatment and analysing it

8

(agonist) what is buprenorphine?

milder alternative to methadone

9

(agonist) what properties does buprenorphine have?

agonist and antagonist

10

(agonist) explain what is means that buprenorphine had both agonist and antagonist properties?

it can bind to a receptor and imitate the action of a substance but it can also block the action of a substance

11

(agonist - methadone) a study analysing data from over 5 years concluded buprenorphine is how many times safer than methadone?

6x

12

(agonist - methadone) why is buprenorphine safer than methadone?

ceiling effect - less risk of overdose
once a certain amount has been taken increasing dosage has no further effect

13

(agonist - methadone) even though buprenorphine is safer why is methadone the preferred treatment?

allows for dosage to be increased to a point where no withdrawal symptoms are seen
even at the ceiling effect of buprenorphine withdrawal symptoms may be seen

14

(antagonist - naltrexone) NICE reviewed how many studies concerning the effectiveness of naltrexone for heroin addiction?

17

15

(antagonist - naltrexone) what did NICE find in their review of studies into effectiveness of naltrexone?

no difference between naltrexone and control treatments for retention on treatment programmes

16

(antagonist - naltrexone) what does NICE research suggest about naltrexone?

no more effective in treating addiction than other treatments

17

(antagonist - naltrexone) in NICEs research naltrexone was associated with a reduction in what?

relapse rates

18

(antagonist - naltrexone) NICE found naltrexone was associated with a reduction in relapse rates particularly in patients who were what?

highly motivated
closely monitored
offered extra support

19

(antagonist - naltrexone) NICEs findings on naltrexone and reduced relapse rates suggest what?

naltrexone is effective in preventing relapse particularly when other support is made available

20

(antagonist - naltrexone) Lahti et al tested effectiveness of naltrexone on a sample of who?

gamblers

21

(antagonist - naltrexone) Lahti et al - gamblers were instructed to take naltrexone when?

before gambling or when feeling an urge to gamble

22

(antagonist - naltrexone) what did Lahti find a significant decrease in?

gambling levels when taking naltrexone

23

(antagonist - naltrexone) what does Lahti's research suggest about naltrexone?

it may be effective in the treatment of gambling addictions

24

(antagonist - naltrexone) what is an issue of Lahti et al's research?

small sample of gamblers
they themselves said more research was needed

25

what is an issue of studies not following up over a long period of time?

doesn't show if drugs decrease in their effectiveness overtime
doesn't show if relapse occurs

26

addicts often experience other social and psychological issues in addition to addiction what is an issue of this?

can influence results of effectiveness of the drugs

27

(ethics) methadone is a sedative drug, what does its side effects include?

suppressed nervous system - and breathing
slowed body functioning
reduced physical and psychological pain
risk of fatal overdose

28

(ethics) in 2014 how many deaths in the UK was methadone responsible for?

349

29

(ethics) many of those receiving methadone remain on it for a long time and without the proper support what do they struggle to do?

make it to the detoxification/maintenance stage

30

(ethics) critics of methadone say all it does is what?

create another addiction

31

(ethics) what are some common side effects of naltrexone?

headaches
nausea
dizziness
trouble sleeping

32

(ethics) mild opiate withdrawal symptoms can occur with naltrexone such as what?

abdominal cramps
joint pain
muscle aches
runny nose

33

(ethics) what can sudden side effects of naltrexone include?

vomiting
diarrhea
hallucinations
anxiety
confusion

34

(ethics) large doses of naltrexone can increase the risk of what?

liver disease

35

(ethics) with side effects, administering these drugs may cause more what?

harm than good

36

(social)breaking the habit report - how much is spent on treating drug users with substitutes like methadone and keeping them on benefits?

£3.6 billion

37

(social)breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in benefits?

£1.7 billion

38

(social)breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in childcare?

£1.2 billion

39

(social) breaking the habit report - how much do England's 320,000 problem drug users cost in treatment?

£370 million

40

(social) breaking the habit report - what would be more effective in getting addicts off drugs completely?

rehabilitation

41

(social) breaking the habit report - prescribing methadone delays recovery where rehabilitation would do what?

free individuals from dependency on drugs

42

(social) drugscope said the report overestimated what?

the cost of prescribing methadone

43

(social) drugscope highlighted the national audit office described drug treatment as good value for money as methadone makes addicts more able to what?

function in society and manage their addiction

44

(social) national treatment agency report - treating heroin users with methadone immediately reduces what?

their criminality - positive influence on society

45

(social) national treatment agency report - rates of offending are reduced by how much when addicts are in treatment?

half

46

(social) breaking the habit report - despite the availability of methadone what has continued to rise?

drug related reoffending

47

(social) setting up methadone programmes centred in one area may lead to what?

addicts gathering in a certain area, possibly increasing crime and antisocial behaviour

48

(social) what did Boyd et al's research in Baltimore show?

despite having treatment centres it had similar crime rates to the surrounding areas

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