Flashcards in 3.3.2 Evaluation: Cortisol & chronic stress Deck (54):
(HPA pathway) evidence of the HPA pathway in response to stress has been seen in what?
number of research studies
(HPA pathway) Lacey et al (2000) found elevated levels of cortisol in who?
students one hour prior to an exam compared to a control group
(HPA pathway) what does Lacey et al's evidence support?
the predictions of the HPA pathway
(HPA pathway) Lacey et al's research was based on students and exam stress, what is an issue with this?
can't generalise - not all stresses in life and all people
(HPA pathway) where may there be differences in the HPA response to stress?
between ages and genders
(HPA pathway) Lopez-Duran et al found variations in cortisol release in who?
children in stressful situations
(HPA pathway) Lopez-Duran et al found the time of peak cortisol release varied from 10-60 minutes, which gender showed greater cortisol release?
(HPA pathway) Lopez-Duran's research suggests what?
gender differences in the HPA pathway response
(HPA pathway) Seltzer put a sample of girls of what age into a stressful situation?
(HPA pathway) Seltzer found the girls showed higher levels of what compared to controls?
(HPA pathway) Seltzer found girls showed lower levels of what compared to controls?
(HPA pathway) seltzer's research suggests social relationships may mediate what?
negative effects of cortisol on the body
(cortisol) what did Tyrell and Baxter found on people without adrenal glands?
they cannot produce enough cortisol
they need additional quantities of cortisol in order to survive
(cortisol) what does Tyrell and Baxters research suggest about cortisol?
it is important when stressed
(cortisol) stress does not always raise cortisol this is a weakness for the HPA pathway because it implies what?
cortisol will always be released if a stressor is perceived
(cortisol) Lewis et al did a review of studies on exam stress they ranged from how much of a decrease in cortisol to how much of an increase?
(cortisol) in Lewis' own study what did he find with cortisol and exam stress?
no difference in cortisol levels in response to exam stress
(cortisol) Lewis' research suggest that stress does not always do what?
raise cortisol levels
(cortisol) Miller et al - variations in findings on cortisol and stress could be due to a variety of factors such as what?
length of time a stressor continues
nature of the threat
emotions associated with the stressor
(cortisol and memory) Kuhlmann et al administered cortisol to who and what did they have to do?
a group of women asked to learn 30 words
some words were negative words e.g. murder
(cortisol and memory) what did Kuhlmann find the group given cortisol did?
remembered significantly fewer words than the group not given cortisol - especially for negative words (may have caused stress)
(cortisol and memory) what does Kuhlmann's research suggest?
a negative correlation between cortisol and memory
(cortisol and memory) one issue of Kuhlmann's research is it lacks ecological validity why?
being asked to recall words in a lab environment is not representative of real life stressors
(cortisol and memory) what is another issue of Kuhlmann's research?
beta gender bias - research was carried out on women cant generalise to men
(cortisol and health) Cohen et al investigated the role of life stress on vulnerability to what?
the common cold virus
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- 394 participants completed questionnaires on what?
stressful life events they had experienced in the previous year
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- participants also rated what?
their degree of stress and level of negative emotions e.g. depression
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- three scores were combined into what?
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- participants were exposed to the common cold virus, how many became infected?
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- after 7 days the no. whose infections developed into clinical colds was how many?
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al- the chances of developing a cold positively correlated with what?
stress index scores
those with more stress were more susceptible to the cold
(cortisol and health) Cohen at al's research suggests a link between cortisol and what?
weakened immune system
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- investigated if stress correlated with what?
decreased immune response
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- blood samples were taken from who and when?
75 volunteer medical students one month before final exams and on the first day of their exams
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- students also completed a questionnaire to assess factors such as what?
emotional states and life events
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- he found what had happened to killer T cell activity between the two samples?
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- he found what in students reporting anxiety, loneliness or life events?
especially weakened immune response
(cortisol and health) Kiecolt-Glaser et al- his research suggests a link between what?
weakened immune response and stress
(cortisol and health) Segerstrom and miller - conducted a meta analysis, found short term acute stressors can do what?
boost the immune system prompting it to ready itself for infections
(cortisol and health) Segerstrom and miller - found long term chronic stressors led to what?
suppression of the immune system
(cortisol and health) Segerstrom and miller - the longer the stress the more the immune system did what?
shifted from an adaptive response to potentially detrimental changes
(cortisol and health) Malarkey et al studied who and how long?
90 newly weds
(cortisol and health) Malarkey et al couples were asked to discuss and resolve what?
marital issues likely to produce conflict and stress e.g. finances
(cortisol and health) Malarkey et al marital conflict produced significant changes in what and what could this do?
adrenaline and noradrenaline
lead to poor immune functioning
(Stress not bad for immune s) research suggests stress may have what effect on the immune system?
(Stress not bad for immune s) Evans - looked at activity of slgA which helps do what?
Protect against infection
(Stress not bad for immune s) Evans - researchers arranged students to encounter what acute stressor?
Giving talks to other students
(Stress not bad for immune s) Evans - students showed what?
Increase in slgA
(Stress not bad for immune s) Evans - what happened to slgA during exam time?
(Stress not bad for immune s) Evans - proposed stress may have what effect on the immune system when faced with different types of stress?
Increase efficiency for acute stress
Decrease efficiency for chronic stress
(Low cortisol causing health issues) when do some people become ill? Give an example
After a stressor is removed
Illness in school holidays after exams
(Low cortisol causing health issues) what may cause this illness?
Sudden fall in cortisol
(Low cortisol causing health issues) heim - looked at studies linking low cortisol to conditions such as what?