Flashcards in Test 25- HRM Deck (40):
what cells is the HALLMARK of an HPV infection?
(pyknotic superficial or immature squamous cells w/ dense, irregularly staining cytoplasma nd perinuclear clearing)
Adolescents w/ an immature HPO axis may experience this for several years following menarche.
Cause of anovulatory cycles
No progesterone is produced and estrogen levels remain high, causing the endometrium to be remain in the proliferative phase>
irregular periods of stromal breakdown w/ variable but usually heavy bleeding
incomplete fusion of the UG folds
becomes the penis in males and the clitoris in femalies
MC malignant stromal tumor
Granulosa cell tumor
Estrogen secreting primary ovarian tumors that can cause endometrial hyperplasia and abnormal uterine bleeding
Granulosa cell tumors
Granulosa cell tumor predisposes you to waht type of cancer?
Pt presents w/ severe dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia (painful sex) and infertility
Endometriosis--endometrial glands and stroma oustide the uterus
endometrial glands in the uterine myometrium
endometrial biopsy on a pt with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, hemorrhagic shock and hx of amenorrhea
decidual (gestational) changes in the endometrium but no chorionic villi
*see pregnancy related endometrial changes because hormones are still released
straight short endometrial glands and compact stroma
early proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
decidualized endometrium and chorionic villi and embryonic tissue
found w/ an intrauterine pregnancy
atypical endometrial cells that form glands
Pts w/ PCOS are at risk for developing....
endometrial adenocarcinoma (due to high levels of unopposed estrogen on the endometrium)
WHat happens to endometrial cells upon withdrawal of progesterone?
Tumor suppressor genes MC associated w/ hereditary breast cancer are involved with...
DNA repair of DS DNA breaks
BRCA1/BRCA2 (AD w/ 70-80% risk) of devleoping cancer
*increases risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer
How do you identify the causative organism of syphillis
can be visualized w/ darkfiled microscopy> helical motile organisms
how is a syphillis dx conirmed
VDRL, RPR- cardiolipin (byproduct of infection)
Solid sheets of pleomorphic high grade cells w/ central necrosis
MCC of Candida vaginitis
Thin, off white discharge w/ fish odor
Thin, yellow green, malodorous froth discharge
Motile trichomonads on smear
Thick white discharge w/ cottage cheese appearance and pseudohyphae
painless ulcers with later progression to painful inguinal lymphadenopathy and ulceration
What causes LGV?
Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3)
What is LGV characterized by histologically?
chlamydial inclusion bodies in the cell cytoplasm
Tx for LGV
Conditions caused by incomplete obliteration of the processus vaginalis
Indirect inguinal hernia
*hydrocele- connection between scrotum and abdominal cavity that allows leakage of fluid
*hernia occurs when opening allows protrusion of abdominal organs along inguinal canal
Most likely explanation for an adnexal mass in an elderly female
serum marker for ovarian malignancy
CRC and pancreatic cancers
nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (yolk sac tumors)
Hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinomas and a gestational trophoblastic tumor all produce...
may be elevated in pts w/ excess production of adrenal androgens
Where does lymph from the testes drain to?
lymph from the scrotum drains to
superficial inguinal LN
primary ciliary dyskinesia