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Flashcards in Test 25- HRM Deck (40):
1

what cells is the HALLMARK of an HPV infection?

Koilocytosis

(pyknotic superficial or immature squamous cells w/ dense, irregularly staining cytoplasma nd perinuclear clearing)

2

Adolescents w/ an immature HPO axis may experience this for several years following menarche.

Anovulation

3

Cause of anovulatory cycles

No progesterone is produced and estrogen levels remain high, causing the endometrium to be remain in the proliferative phase>
irregular periods of stromal breakdown w/ variable but usually heavy bleeding

4

incomplete fusion of the UG folds

hypospadias

5

becomes the penis in males and the clitoris in femalies

genital tubercle

6

MC malignant stromal tumor

Granulosa cell tumor

7

Estrogen secreting primary ovarian tumors that can cause endometrial hyperplasia and abnormal uterine bleeding

Granulosa cell tumors

8

Granulosa cell tumor predisposes you to waht type of cancer?

endometrial adenocarcinoma

9

Pt presents w/ severe dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia (painful sex) and infertility

Endometriosis--endometrial glands and stroma oustide the uterus

10

endometrial glands in the uterine myometrium

adenomyosis

11

endometrial biopsy on a pt with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, hemorrhagic shock and hx of amenorrhea

decidual (gestational) changes in the endometrium but no chorionic villi

*see pregnancy related endometrial changes because hormones are still released

12

straight short endometrial glands and compact stroma

early proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle

13

decidualized endometrium and chorionic villi and embryonic tissue

found w/ an intrauterine pregnancy

14

atypical endometrial cells that form glands

endometrial adenocarcinoma

15

Pts w/ PCOS are at risk for developing....

endometrial adenocarcinoma (due to high levels of unopposed estrogen on the endometrium)
T2D

16

WHat happens to endometrial cells upon withdrawal of progesterone?

apoptosis

17

Tumor suppressor genes MC associated w/ hereditary breast cancer are involved with...

DNA repair of DS DNA breaks

BRCA1/BRCA2 (AD w/ 70-80% risk) of devleoping cancer


*increases risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer

18

How do you identify the causative organism of syphillis

Treponema pallidum

can be visualized w/ darkfiled microscopy> helical motile organisms

19

how is a syphillis dx conirmed

serologic testing

VDRL, RPR- cardiolipin (byproduct of infection)

20

Solid sheets of pleomorphic high grade cells w/ central necrosis

comedocarcinoma

21

MCC of Candida vaginitis

antibiotic use

22

Thin, off white discharge w/ fish odor
pH>4.5
Clue cells

Bacterial vaginosis

Metronidazole

23

Thin, yellow green, malodorous froth discharge
pH>4.5
Motile trichomonads on smear

Trichomoniasis

Metronidazole

24

Thick white discharge w/ cottage cheese appearance and pseudohyphae

Candida vaginitis

Flucanazole

25

painless ulcers with later progression to painful inguinal lymphadenopathy and ulceration

Lymphogranuloma venereum

26

What causes LGV?

Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3)

27

What is LGV characterized by histologically?

chlamydial inclusion bodies in the cell cytoplasm

28

Tx for LGV

doxycycline

29

Conditions caused by incomplete obliteration of the processus vaginalis

Hydrocele
Indirect inguinal hernia

*hydrocele- connection between scrotum and abdominal cavity that allows leakage of fluid

*hernia occurs when opening allows protrusion of abdominal organs along inguinal canal

30

Most likely explanation for an adnexal mass in an elderly female

ovarian malignancy

31

serum marker for ovarian malignancy

CA-125

32

CEA

CRC and pancreatic cancers

33

CA 19-9

Pancreatic cancer

34

increased AFP

hepatocellular carcinoma
nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (yolk sac tumors)

35

Hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinomas and a gestational trophoblastic tumor all produce...

BhCG

36

DHEA

may be elevated in pts w/ excess production of adrenal androgens

37

Where does lymph from the testes drain to?

para-aortic LN

38

lymph from the scrotum drains to

superficial inguinal LN

39

situs inversus
chronic sinusitis
bronchiectasis
infertility

primary ciliary dyskinesia

40

Strongest known RF for development of CIN and invasive cervical carcinoma

HPV (esp 16 and 18)


*early age at first intercourse and multiple partners increases incidence of HPV