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Flashcards in Test 27 Deck (68):
1

location of compound tubular glands that secrete alkaline mucus

Brunner's glands in the duodenum that secrete into ducts that empty into the crypts of Lieberkuhn

2

lymphoid aggregates specific to the ileum

Peyers patches

3

L/S ratio greater than 2 indicate

adequate surfactant produciton to avoid neonatal hyaline membrane disease

Lecithin production increases after 30,36 weeks, while syphingomyelin levels remain constant during the third trimester

Dipalmitoyl phosphatitoly choline and phosphatidly glycerol are major components of surfactant

4

recall bias

inaccurate recall of past exposure by people in the study--ppl who have stuffered an adverse eent are more liekly to recal RFs than those w/out adverse experiences

5

Referral bia

case and control pops differ d/t to admission/referral practices

6

detection bias

RF itself may lead to extensive diagnostic investigation and increase probability that disease is identified

7

Lead time bias

screening test dx a disease earlier than it would have appeared by natural hx so that hte time from dx until death is prolonged

8

allocation bias

way tx and control groups are assembeled

9

sampling bias

non random sampling of a population--study populatoin has characteristics that differ from the target population

10

hereditary defect in renal PCT and intestinal AA transporter that prevents resorption of cystine, ornithine, lysine, arginine (COLA) across the intestinal and renal tubular epithleium

cystinuria (AR)

11

what complication is a pt w/ cystinuria at risk for developing

excess cystine in the urine can lead to recurrent precipitation of hexagonal cystine STONES> recurrent nephrolithiasis

12

tx for cystinuria

urinary alkalinization (K citrate, acetazolamide)
chelating agents

13

octahedron stones

calcium oxalate
calcium phosphate

sCuare

14

rectangular prisms (coffin lids) stones

Magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite or triple phosphate

15

Yellow/red-brown diamond or rhombus

uric acid

16

effect of MI on CO

sharp DECREASE in CO ouput d/ tloss of myocardium (decreases slope and max height of line)

17

effect of chronic anemia on CO

increases CO to meet metabolic demand of tissues

18

effect of anaphylaxis on VR and CO

VR- decreases, d/t widespread venous and arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability

CO- increases/ d/t increased cardiac contractility to maintain bp

19

flu like sxs and erythema chronicum migrans following hiking in new hampshire

early lyme disease

key LYME pie to the

Flu like sxs/Facial nerve palsy
Arthritis
Cardiac block
Erythema chronicum migrans

20

AV block and bells palsy after hiking 6 mos ago

second stage of lyme's

21

chronic assymmetric large joint arthritis and ecephalopathy following hiking months to years ago and bells palsy

lymes disease

22

how do you tx lymes

doxycycline
penicillin type antibiotics (ceftriaxone)

23

lymes transmission

borrelia burgdorferia spirochete by bite of ixodes tick in NE of USa nd europe

24

antimalarial drug used in prevention and tx of p. falciparum

mefloquine

25

transplant pt w/ pneumonia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (OWLS EYES)

opportunistic infection w/ CMV

26

enveloped DS DNA virus

CMV- common in pts w/ lung transplants, can be treated prophylactically w/ valganciclovir

27

site of ribosomal RNA synthesis

nucleolus

28

APP, presenilin 1, presenilin 2

EArly onset alzheimers

(APP is located on chrom 21 and is why pts w/ Downs get Alz)

29

Apo E4

late onset Alz

30

ApoE2

decreased risk of Alz

31

Familial hyperhcolesterolemia

defect in LDL

32

mutation in b myosin heavy chain

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

33

cardiac SE of doxorubicin (daunorubicin, epirubicin, BICINS)

form FREE radicals in the myocardium> dose related dilated CARDIOMYOPATHY>
SXS of L and R ventricular CHF

34

9yo
red colored urine, periorbital edema, mild pedal edema
atopic dermatitis> predisposure to secondary skin infections
impetigo

Antecedent skin infection + acute hematuria and edema> PSGN

35

MC cause of acute nephritis in children

PSGN

36

Abs form against Ag expressed by GAS during infection. Ab combine w/ AG to form ICs (type III) that are deposited along BM

PSGN

(GAS- impetigo, cellulitis, pharyngitis)

37

second MC cause of CAH

11B hydroxylase def

prevents adrenal gland from synthesizing cortisol and aldosterone efficiently laeding to increased production of adrenal androgens d/t aldosterone and cortisol precursors being shifted there. Low cortisol further stimualtes production of ACTH> further increase in adrenal androgens

38

Female born w/ ambiguous genitalia, HTN and HYPOkalemia early in life.

11 hydroxylase def

39

MC type of CAH

21 hydroxylase def

40

Female w/ ambiguous genitalia (androgen excess) and HYPOTN and HYPOkalemia (mineralcorticoid def)

21 hydroxylase def

41

Females are born with NORMAL genitalia but males are undervirillized. AFfected individuals DONT undergo puberty and develop HTN and hypokalemia (excess mineralcorticoids)

17a hydroxylase

42

contralateral spastic rigidity
hyperreflexia
paresis (weakness in voluntary movement

UMN lesion (can affect any part of pyramidal motor system)

43

caudate nucleus

Huntingtons
lesions> chorea and athetosis (slow writhing of fingrs/movements)

44

Integrates body state and emotions with ANS and conscious experience of vsiceral sensations

insular cortex

45

initiates movements
lesions> contralateral tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity

putamen

46

pure motor weakness affecting contralateral arm, leg and lower face

*contralateral spasticity, hyperrefelxia, positive Babinski

Internal capsule stroke

47

MAO inhibitor that can prevent MPTP induced damage of dopaminergic neurons

selegiline (delays parkinsons!)

48

Preferred combination for treating Parkinsons

Selegiline
Anticholinergics
Amantadine

then levo/carbi introduced

49

Amantadine

antiviral influenza agent

has some dopaminergic and anticholinergic actions> can provide mod improvement to Parkinson pt

50

Increases levels of DA in the brain

Ldopa

51

carbidopa

given with L dopa to increase bioavailability in the brain

52

Peroglide

DA agonist, providesmodest improvement in park sxs

53

High fever
cough
confusion
diarrhea

Legionella pneumophilia

54

MC lab abnormality seen w/ legionella

HYPOnatreamia

sputum shows many neutrophils

55

this disease can be suspected w/ recent exposure to contaminated water (cruise ships, spas,, hotels)

Legionella

56

cold agglutinin formation

mycoplasma pneumonia (young adults)

57

Healthy volunteers orally inoculated w/ pathogenic strains of c. diff don't develop signs of infection. Which protective mechanism is responsibel?

Intestinal bacteia that are normally present in our flora effectively suppress overgrwoth of d. diff and compete for nutrients and adhesion to the gut

58

class of drugs taht has been showsn to decrease the progression of diabetic nephropathy

ACE-I and ARB

59

first line medication for tx of essential HTN

HTZ

60

Hormones that use G proteins and cyclic AMP

Glucagon
PTH
TSH


(FLAT ChAMP + calcitonin, GHRH, glucagon)

61

Activate PPAR-gamma and alters trxn of genes responsible for glucose and lipid metabolism

TDZ--> decrease insulin resistance

62

Activate PPAR-gamma and alters trxn of genes responsible for glucose and lipid metabolism

TDZ--> decrease insulin resistance

63

what reduces the risk of non-hereditary ovarian and endometrial cancer

OCPs!!


multiparity
breast feeding

64

what is the most potent cerebral vasodilator

pCO2

decreases vascular resistance leading to increased cerebral perfusion and ICP

65

affect of COPD on pulmonary resistance

chronic hypoxia caused by COPD> pulmonary vasoconstriction

66

MC malignant hepatic lesion

metastis form anotehr primary site (breast, lung, colon)

67

MC malignant hepatic lesion

metastis form anotehr primary site (breast, lung, colon)

68

Urinary urgency, frequency, hesitency assocaited w/ BACK PAIN in an ELDERLY man

metastatic prostate cancer

**strong predilection for BONES