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Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > Fatty Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fatty Acids Deck (86):
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Figure this out by the end of the lecture

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Overview of Fatty Acid Metabolism

3

Why is fatty acid storage more compact and a better energy storage than glycogen?

Smaller molecule

Larger molecule

Hydrophobic Effect

Ionic effect

 

 

Hydrophobic Effect

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What are Fatty Acids?

5

 

 

 

Palmitate

6

 

 

 

Palmitolate

7

 

 

 

Stearate

8

 

 

 

Oleate

9

 

 

 

Linoleate

10

 

 

 

Linolenate

11

 

 

 

Arachadonic Acid

12

 

 

 

Biological Functions of Fatty Acids

13

 

 

 

Triacylglycerol

14

 

 

 

Membrane Structures

15

 

 

 

Release of FA from Adipose and the Enzymes involved.

16

 

 

 

Triglyceride Degredation 

17

When fatty acids are released from the fat cell they are carried by serum albumin?

They are specific receptors for serum albumin on tissues, but not for fatty acids

The fatty acids would precipitate in serum unless bound to albumin

The fatty acids would bind to membrane components and not travel to target tissues

the fatty acids can only enter the nerves system if bound to albumin

 

 

The fatty acids would precipitate in serum unless bound to albumin

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How long must a chain be to be soluble? 

 

 

Once you get larger than 8 carbon fatty acids it starts to precipitate

19

 

 

 

What Carries FA in the Blood? and Why?

 

 

 

Albumin is the most abundant protein in your blood stream. 

20

What other protein is activated by PKA

Liver phosphorylase (activated by phosphorylase kinase)

Muscle Phosphorylase

Protein phosphatase 1

Protein Inhibitor 1

glycogen synthase (Inhibited by PKA)

 

 

 

Protein Inhibitor 1

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What Happens to the Glycerol Produced?

22

 

G3PDH is also needed for what pathway?

Glycolysis 

Glucogneogeneiss

An electron shunt pathway

Glycogen Degredation

Glycogen synthesis 

 

 

 

An electron shunt pathway

23

How many high-energy phosphate bonds are required to convert two molecules of glycerol to one molecule of glucose in the liver?

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

 

 

 

2

 

Lactate requires 6 Atps to get to Glucose but glycerol only needs 2. But there’s much more Lactate than Glycerol.

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What Happens to the Fatty Acids?

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Feeding Experiments

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Beta Oxidation 

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Similarities to TCA Cycle

28

 

 

 

Fatty Acid Oxidation Reactions

29

 

 

 

Big Picture of Fatty Acid Oxidation

30

 

 

 

Fatty Acid Oxidation 

31

 

 

 

Overview of Fatty Acid Oxidation 

32

 

 

 

Fatty Acid Transport into the Mitochondria

33

 

 

 

Acetyl CoA vs. Acyl CoA

 

 

Acetyl CoA — this specifies that the CoA is directly linked to the Acetyl group.

Acyl CoA— Hydrocarbon chain linked to CoA

34

What would you expect to happen in fan individual had a CPT II deficiency?

Fasting Hyperglycemia

Fasting Hypoglycemia

Reduced glycolytic rate

No effect on metabolism 

 

 

 

Fasting Hypoglycemia — Liver will have trouble maintaining blood glucose levels. 

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Oxidation of Saturated Fatty Acids

36

 

 

 

Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase

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Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Degredation 

38

For the complete oxidation of palmitic acid, how many rounds of the beta oxidation spiral are required?

5

6

7

8

9

 

 

7— after 6 rounds we released 6 acCoA (12 carbons) we started with 16 so that leaves 4 carbons so we have one more round to get to 7

39

 

 

 

Energy Yield from Fatty Acid Oxidation

40

 

 

 

Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids Continued

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Unsaturated FA pt. 3

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Unsaturated FA Pt. 4

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Unsaturated FA Pt. 5

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ATP Yield from Unsaturated Fatty Acid

46

Which fatty acid when completed oxidized will yield the greatest amount of ATP?

C16:0

C18:0

Cis delta 5 C20:1

Cis Delta 6 C20:1

Cis Delta 6,9 C20:2

 

 

 

Cis delta 5 C20:1

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Oxidation of Odd-Chain Fatty Acids

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ATP from the Oxidation of an Odd Chain Fatty Acid

49

 

 

 

Alpha Oxidation 

 

 

 

Alpha oxidation is unique to branched chain fatty acids. 

50

 

 

 

Omega Oxidation 

 

 

Only see Omega oxidation when Beta Oxidation is working. 

Omega converts methyl group to alcohol then aldehyde then to an acid

51

Why is alpha oxidation required for Phytanic Acid?

To allow the hydration step to occur

to Allow the acyl CoA dehydrogenase step to occur

To allow the thiolase step to occur

To allow the hydroxylacyl CoA dehydrogenase step to occur 

To allow the hydroxylacyl CoA dehydrogenase step to occur —

 

Methyl group is on the beta carbon. SO we can do the first step fine. The second step is to add hydroxyl group on the beta carbon. The third step is to oxidize the hydroxyl group on the beta carbon therefore we can’t make a ketone on that carbon. So if you use alpha oxidation you move the methyl group to the alpha position and can therefore oxidize the beta position. 

52

What metabolite may accumulate in the blood of an individual with MCAD deficiency?

Free Fatty Acids

Carnitine 

6-10 Carbon Dicarboxlic acids 

Glucose

Glycerol

 

 

6-10 Carbon Dicarboxlic acids — This is a case where omega oxidation will take over. Organic Dicarboxylic acids will be released. 

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How does FA derived from FADH2 Deliver Electrons to the ETC

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Ketone Bodies

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Biosynthesis of Ketone Bodies

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How are ketone bodies metabolized

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Regulation of Ketone Body Synthesis 

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Timing of Fatty Acid and KB utilization

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Metabolic Defects in FA oxidation

60

 

 

 

Carnitine Deficiency 

 

Fatty acids accumulate in the cytoplasm because they can’t get into the cytoplasm. SO FA in liver and muscle are disease conditions and this is why. 

Primary — Treat with Short Chain Fatty acids. 

Secondary — can’t be treated with short chain.

We don’t make ketone bodies with either type of Carnitine Deficiency. 

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Primary Carnitine Deficiency 

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Secondary Carnitine Deficiency 

63

 

 

 

MCAD Deficiency 

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4 Peroxisome Disorders

 

 

Zellwedgers Syndrome

Refsum Disease

Adrenoluekodystrophy

Acyl-CoA Oxidase Deficiency 

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Zellwedger Syndrome

66

 

 

 

Refsum Disease

67

 

 

 

Adrenoluekodystrophy

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Acyl-CoA Oxidase Deficiency 

69

 

 

 

Jamacan Vomiting Sickness

70

 

 

 

Fatty Acid Bioxynthesis Rationale and Reactions

71

 

 

 

Pathway of FA Biosynthesis 

72

 

 

 

Initial Condensation 

73

 

 

 

Initial Condensation Cont.

74

 

 

 

Reductions of Dehydrations

75

 

 

 

Reduction and Condensation

76

 

 

 

Elongation of Fatty Acids

77

 

 

 

Desaturation of Fatty Acids

78

 

 

 

Essential Fatty Acids

79

 

 

 

Elongation and Desaturation of Fatty Acids -- Omega Series

80

 

 

 

Omega Series Cont. 

81

 

 

 

Transport of Acetyl CoA

82

 

 

 

Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism 

83

 

 

 

Hormonal Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism

84

 

 

 

Allosteric Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism

85

 

 

 

Glucagon Regulation of Fatty Acids

86

 

 

 

Good Question. You better Damn Well Know the Answer!!!

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