Intro to Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > Intro to Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Metabolism Deck (103):
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What is Metabolism?

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Options:

Von Gierke Disease 

Classical Galactosemia

Non-Classical Galactosemia

Hereditary fructose

MCAD Deficience

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 1 Diabetes

3

 

 

 

Normal Non-Fasting Levels of Glucose

 

 

 

Glucose 100 mg/dl

4

Von Gierke Disease 

Classical Galactosemia

Non-Classical Galactosemia

Hereditary fructose

MCAD Deficiency Medium Chain Acetyl Co-A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

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MCAD Deficiency Medium Chain Acetyl Co-A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

5

 

 

 

What are the Four Nutrients

 

1. Carbohydrates (Sugars)

2. Lipids (Fats)

3. Protiens (Made of AA)

4. Alcohol

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Carbohydrates

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Lipids (Fats)

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Proteins 

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Alcohol

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10

 

 

 

What is common to all tissues?

 

 

 

Glycogen stores (Some tissues have much more than others)

11

 

 

 

High protein diets can result in...

 

 

 

Proteins being converted into triglycerides or glycogen which can mean weight gain.

12

Lipids produce more energy on per carbon basis than carbs or proteins out to which one of the following?

Lipids are more oxidized

Lipids are more reduced than carbs— have more electrons available

lipids have greater molecular weight than carbs

Lipids have a reduced solubility in water

 

 

Lipids are more reduced than carbs— have more electrons available

13

 

 

 

The more oxidized a nutrient is...

 

 

 

the less energy that it can produce

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Most oxidized substance is...

 

 

 

 

CO2 which cannot be reduced and cannot give us energy

15

 

 

 

If you a mean with 100g of CHO 100 g of fat and 20 g of alcohol how many calories?

 

 

 

1840 Calories/g

Could be the entire caloric need for a day. 

16

 

 

 

What are vitamins

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17

 

 

 

Co-factors

 

 

 

Help enzymes catalyze the reaction and in most cases they remain unchanged. Some change.

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What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins

 

 

 

A, D, E, and K

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B1

 

 

 

Thiamine

20

 

 

 

B2

 

 

 

Riboflavin

21

 

 

 

B3

 

 

 

Niacin

22

 

 

 

B5

 

 

 

Pantothenic Acid

23

 

 

 

B6

 

 

 

Pyridoxine

24

 

 

 

B7 

 

 

 

Biotin

25

 

 

 

B9 

 

 

 

Folic Acid

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B12 

 

 

 

Cobalamine

27

 

 

 

Vitamin A

 

 

 

Vision

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Vitamin D

 

 

 

Calcium and Hormones

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Vitamin E

 

 

 

Antioxidant

30

 

 

 

Vitamin K

 

 

 

Blood Coagulation

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Reactions that need only 1 carbon usually come from...

 

 

 

folate

32

 

 

 

Energy Required to keep all organs functioning at rest...

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Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation

 

 

 

More precise than the Basal Metabolic Rate

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Daily Energy Need

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If Caloric Intake Exceeds Daily Needs...

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If Caloric Intake is below that of daily need...

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Loss of one pound...

 

 

 

Loss of one pound is about 3500 Calories per week — 500 Calories per day. 

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Body Mass Index Definition

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Scale of BMI

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40

 

 

 

What are the Energy Sources?

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Why does the removal of the (first two phosphate groups ony) on ATP release energy?

 

 

 

Phosphate want’s to be removed because the negative charges repel each other. 

42

 

 

 

Muscle converts excess ATP...

 

 

 

Muscle converts excess ATP to Creatine Phosphate to get a reservoir of high energy intermediates. 

43

 

 

 

Each individual Phospate bond to ATP releases how much energy?

 

 

 

7 kcal/mole is for each individual high energy bonds (there are two in each ATP.)

44

 

 

 

Draw the Metabolism Overview in the Fed State

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Fat is not soluble in water and is instead

 

 

 

Fat is not soluble in water and is instead packaged into a Chylomicron.

46

 

 

 

Pancreas

 

 

Pancreas senses the change in blood glucose levels and creates Insulin and Alpha Cells of pancreases reduces Glucagon.

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Insulin/Glucagon Ratio in the fed state

 

 

 

Insulin/Glucagon Ratio in the fed state is High

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Glucose is stored as...

 

 

 

Glucose stored as glycogen and metabolized into Acetyl CoA

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Chylomicrons

 

 

 

Transport Dietary Triglycerides

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VLDL

 

 

 

Transports De Novo Triglycerides

51

 

 

 

Only Source of Energy for the Brain 

 

 

 

Glucose

52

 

 

 

What organelles/features do RBC's Lack?

 

 

 

Nucleus or Mitochondria

53

 

 

 

Muscle will only uptake glucose under what conditions?

 

 

 

 

Muscle will only take glucose up from circulation when insulin is present. 

54

 

 

 

Liver Glycogen

 

 

 

Used to maintain Glucose levels in the blood

55

 

 

 

Muscle Glycogen

 

 

 

Only used for muscle

56

 

 

 

Fat Cells only uptake Glucose under what conditions?

 

 

 

Glucose entry into fat cells is also insulin dependent

57

 

 

 

What tissues/when can they uptake Amino Acids?

 

 

All other tissues can use AA for energy some tissues will be insulin dependent AA uptake whereas others will be Insulin independent AA uptake.

58

 

 

 

Draw Metabolism in the Basal State

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Glucose levels in between meals...

 

 

 

In between meals — Blood Glucose levels Drop

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What does the liver do in the absence of glucose...

 

 

 

Liver — Glycogen Degradation is Stimulated for Blood Glucose Increase so brain can still get energy.

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Brain doesn’t care that we’re not eating. Why?

 

 

 

Because it will use glucose that is broken down from liver glycogen stores. 

62

 

 

 

RBC converts glucose into...

 

 

 

RBC — Glucose converted to lactate in RBCS

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Function of Fat Cells

 

 

 

Fat Cells — Activation of Triglyceride hydrolysis and release of Fatty Acids into blood

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How does the muscle react when Insulin/Glucagon ratio is low?

 

 

 

Muscle — Insulin Low — No Glucose Uptake — Uses Glycogen Stores

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How does the liver react when Insulin/Glucagon Ratio is Low

 

 

 

 

Liver — Takes up FA to generate energy — KB transport Acetyl CoA throughout the body — FA in Liver is converted to Acetyl CoA — Gluconeogenisis— Synthesis of Glucose via other substrates

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How is the Lactate made by RBC’s used?

 

 

 

used by Liver for Gluconeogenesis— Heart also uses lactate for energy 

67

 

 

 

Draw Metabolism in the Starved State

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Blood Glucose in Starved State

 

 

 

Blood Glucose is low — Insulin Down — Glucagon Up

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How long after not eating is liver glucagon gone?

 

 

 

18-24 hours of not eating liver glycogen is gone

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What are FA being used to generate in the Starved State?

 

 

 

FA is being used to make more ketone bodies

71

 

 

 

What are the energy sources for gluconeogenisis in the starved state?

 

 

 

Glycerol and Lactate are primary sources of gluconeogenesis

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Brain Glucose Consumption in Starved State

 

 

 

Glucose being used by brain is now 60% of normal because other 40% is provided by KB

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Functions of KB

 

 

 

KB reduce brain’s dependency on glucose which reduces the need for protein degradation

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What ultimately kills us when starving?

 

 

 

Ultimately what will kill us during starvation is protein degredation

75

 

 

 

Can FA's be used to make Glucose?

 

 

 

FA’s can’t be used to make glucose. 

76

 

 

 

Emia Suffix

 

 

 

Emia — Suffix for In the Blood.

77

 

 

 

Urea Suffix

 

 

 

Urea — Suffix for in the Urine. 

78

 

 

 

HbA1c

 

 

 

HbA1c — is a Glycosylated Protein and indicates lack of Glycemic Control

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Why do we measure blood Contents?

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80

 

 

 

Glycolysis 

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81

 

 

 

Gluconeogenesis

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82

 

 

 

Disorders of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 

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83

 

 

 

How do we store energy?

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84

 

 

 

TCA Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

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85

 

 

 

Fatty Acid Metabolism 

 

 

 

 

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86

 

 

 

Disorders of Fatty Acid Metabolism

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87

 

 

 

HMP Shunt Pathway 

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88

 

 

 

What is the most common x-linked disease in the world?

 

 

 

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficinency 

89

 

What do you need 5 carbon sugars for?

Protein synthesis 

Amino acid synthesis

Nucleotide Synthesis

None of the Above

 

 

 

Nucleotide Synthesis

90

 

 

Urea cycle and Amino Acid Metabolism

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Urea cycle and Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

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Purine and Pyrimidine Synthesis and Degredation 

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Purine and Pyrimidine Synthesis and Degredation Disorders

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94

 

 

 

Cholesterol Biosynthesis

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95

 

 

 

How are the reactions in the body catalyzed?

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96

 

 

 

Why is Enzyme Regulation Needed?

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Long Term Adaptation

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Feedback Inhibition

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Allosteric Modification

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100

 

 

 

Covalent Modification 

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101

 

 

 

Compartmentalization

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102

 

 

 

What are the 5 ways of Enzyme Regulation?

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103

 

In a fed state, after eating a meal high in carbs hand when energy level are high in liver which pathways would be inhibited?

 

Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis 

 

 

 

Gluconeogenesis

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