Minerals: Essential Micronutrients Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > Minerals: Essential Micronutrients > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals: Essential Micronutrients Deck (44):
1

 

 

 

Micronutrients vs. Macronutrients

 

 

Macronutrients — Fats, Proteins, Carbs, Alcohol — Needed in Grams

Micronutrients — Minerals — Needed in milligrams

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RDA

AI

UL

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Factors that Affect Micronutrient Requirements

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Major Minerals

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Trace Minerals

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6

 

Minerals exist as?

How are minerals Absorbed?

What happens to unabsorbed minerals?

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Low Bioavailability

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8

 

 

 

High Bioavailability 

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9

 

 

 

Minerals of Concern in American Diet

Major Minerals vs. Minor Minerals

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Sites of Calcium 

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Roles of Calcium 

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Site of Calcium Absorbtion 

 

 

 

Small Intestine is the most

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Mechanism of Calcium Absorbtion

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Bioavailability and Absorption of Calcium 

 

 

 

30% of Calcium is Absorbed but range is 10-60% based on Need

Best Absorbed in Acidic Conditions

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Regulation of Plasma Calcium 

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Dietary Sources of Calcium 

Know the Top 3

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Osteoporosis

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18

 

 

 

Hypercalcemia 

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Iron Classification 

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Roles of Iron

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Iron Absorption 

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22

Mary JO 50 yrOld nurse is lactose intolerant worried about risk of osteoporosis:

Take calcium carbonate with Meals (500 mg twice a day)

Take calcium citrate at bedtime (1000mg)

Mary JO 50 yrOld nurse is lactose intolerant worried about risk of osteoporosis:

Take calcium carbonate with Meals (500 mg twice a day) — calcium is best absorbed in an acidic meal — Most efficient absorption in multiple doses. 

Take calcium citrate at bedtime (1000mg)

23

Your patients condition of hyperparathyroidsims causes concern about the potential for:

Hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia

Hypovitaminosis D

No Concern 

Your patients condition of hyperparathyroidsims causes concern about the potential for:

Hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia

Hypovitaminosis D

No Concern 

24

 

 

What is the main iron regulatory hormone?

(Upregulated when low.)

 

 

Hepsidin is main iron regulatory hormone

25

 

 

 

Amount of Dietary Heme vs. non-heme iron

 

 

About 10% of dietary iron is heme iron

90% is non-heme Iron. — There’s a difference in absorption

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Absroption, transportation, storage, and excretion of Iron

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Absorption of Iron 

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Enhanced Absorption of Non-Heme Iron 

 

 

 

MFP -- Meat, Fish, Poultry

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Reduction of Iron Absorption 

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Absorbed Iron Requirements

 

 

 

Small Numbers because this is not nutritient requirement (RDA) this is absorption which for iron is about 10%

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Dietary Sources of Iron 

 

 

 

Animal Sources are better source for trace minerals

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High Risk Populations for Iron Deficiency

 

 

 

Infants and Toddlers (High Growth Rate)

Older Adults (less gastric acidity) 

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What food Group is a poor source of Iron

 

 

 

Milk and Milk Products

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Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency 

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Treatments for Iron Deficiency

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36

 

 

 

Hemochromatosis 

 

 

 

More Likely in Men

 

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Signs and Symptoms of Iron Overload

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Treatments for Iron Overload

 

 

 

Avoid supplements and avoid highly fortified foods

Avoid Iron and Vitamin C Supplements

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Roles of Magnesium 

 

 

 

Magnesium is regulated simply by absorption and secretions

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Dietary Sources of Magnesium 

 

 

 

Chocolate is also a dietary source

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Causes of Magnesium Deficiency 

 

 

 

 

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Signs and Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency 

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Magnesium Toxicity 

 

 

 

Blank =Supplements or Medications

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44

 

 

 

Focal Points

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