Glycolysis Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > Glycolysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glycolysis Deck (200):
1

To lose one pound of weight, ones caloric intake should decrease by approximately how many calories?

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

 

 

3500

2

In order to maintain his/her current weight, hw many calories will a 70 kg sedentary individual require daily?

1550

1850

2150

2450

2750

 

 

 

2150

(70 x 24 x 1.3 = 2150)

3

Under fasting conditions, which of the following is true?

Muscle glycolysis is inhibited

Liver glycolysis is inhibited

Muscle glycogen degradation is inhibited (it can be turned on 

Liver glycogen degradation is inhibited

 

 

Liver glycolysis is inhibited (Muscle glycolysis won’t be inhibited under fasting conditions)

4

Still under initial fasting conditions which statement is correct (initial fasting conditions)?

Muscle glycogen synthesis increases

Adipocyte fate content increases

Urea synthesis increases 

Lactate utilization by RBC increases

 

 

Urea synthesis increases (AA are now used as energy source and their waste is in urea)

5

 

 

What is diabetes?

Type 1?

Type 2?

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What are you looking for?

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7

A type 1 diabetic has just eaten, but forgot to take insulin. Which of the following will occur as a result?

 

Fatty acid degradation in the liver will increase

Glycogen degradation in the liver will decrease

Gluconeogenesis in the liver will continue 

RBC’s will increase their oxidation of fatty acids 

 

Gluconeogenesis in the liver will continue (In absence of insulin gluconeogenesis will continue. But glucose levels will actually continue to rise because insulin is required for glucose uptake by the muscle and the adipose tissue and liver still pumps out glucose via gluconeogenesis. Insulin is required to stimulate glycogen synthesis.) 

 (RBC’s have no mitochondria and therefore cannot oxidize FA)

 (RBC’s have no mitochondria and therefore cannot oxidize FA)

8

 

 

Overview of Glycolysis 

 

Two pathways of Glycolysis — Anaerobic and Aerobic

In order to generate Triglyceride we need to go through glycolysis. 

Excess glucose goes through glycogen biosynthesis. 

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Glycolysis in Muscle vs. Liver

 

 

 

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10

 

 


What type of metabolism is used when sprinting 

 

 

 

Sprinting — Anaerobic Metabolism

11

 

 

 

Glucokinase is found...

 

 

 

Glucokinase — liver and pancreas. 

12

 

 

 

Hexokinase is found...

   

 

 

In every other tissue but the liver and the pancreas

13

 

 

 

Glucose-1-Phosphate is Isomerized into...

 

 

 

Glucose 1 phosphate is isomerated into Glucose-6-P

14

 

 

 

What is the first committed step in glycolysis?

 

 

 

Phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1)  — Irreversible. Committed Step. Regulated Step. 

15

 

 

 

How many ATP's are used to get to the point of having two triose's?

 

 

 

2 ATP

16

 

 

 

How does NAD become NADH?

Is this oxidization or reduction?

 

 

 

NAD+ accepts two electrons and a proton to become NADH 

 

 

17

 

 

 

What is a mutase?

 

 

 

Whenever we move a phosphate from one functional group to another.

18

 

 

 

What is the function of dehydration?

 

 

Dehydration creates very high energy bond — about twice the energy of a high energy bond in ATP  — ATP is 7kcal/mol where as the enolated phosphate is about 14 kcal/mol (which is doubled).

19

 

 

 

Which enzyme regenerates NAD so it can be reused?

 

 

Lactate Dehydrogenase regenerates NAD by converting NADH so it can be reused. 

20

 

 

 

The Hexokinase Reaction

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21

 

 

 

The Phosphohexose Isomerase Step

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22

 

 

 

The Phosphofructokinase-1 Reaction (PFK-1)

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23

 

 

 

Difference between Bisphosphate vs. Diphosphate

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24

 

 

 

The Aldolase Reaciton

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25

The triose phosphate isomerase reaction most closely resembles which other reaction?

 

Glucose to G6P

G6P to F6P

F6P to F1,6BP

F1,6BP to G3P and Dhap

 

 

 

G6P to F6P

26

 

When a compound is oxidized, it:

Loses water

Loses electrons

Gains electrons

Gains water

 

 

 

Loses electrons

27

 

 

 

Generation of a High Energy Bond

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28

 

 

 

What is NAD+

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29

 

 

 

Pellagra

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30

 

 

 

The phosphoglycerate kinase reaction

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31

 

 


What makes a reaction freely reversible vs. Irreversible?

 

 

Energy in high energy bond in the reactants is the same energy level as ATP in the product so overall energy is the same on both sides of the reactions which makes it reversible. 

32

 

 

 

Substrate Level Phosphorylation

 

 

 

Substrate Level Phosphorylation — In the absence of Oxygen

33

 

 

 

Oxidative Phosphorylation

 

 

 

Oxidative Phosphorylation — Requires Oxygen.

34

 

 

 

Phosphoglycerate Mutase Step

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35

 

 

 

Formation of ATP by Pyruvate Kinase

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36

 

 

 

What are the 3 Irreversible Steps of Glycolysis?

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37

 

 

 

PFK-1 

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38

 

 

 

Inhibitors of PFK1

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39

 

 

 

Activators of PFK-1

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40

 

 

 

ATP's role in PFK-1

 

 

 

ATP = Key Inhibitor — Indicates high energy levels. 

41

 

 

 

Where does glycolysis occur?

 

 

 

Glycolysis — Occurs in the Cytoplasm

42

 

 

 

Where is Citrate Made?

 

 

 

Citrate is made in the Mitochondria 

43

 

 

 

Explain Citrate's Role in Glycolysis 

 

 

When Energy levels are high in the Mitochondria citrate accumulates and leaves mitochondria. When it leaves and goes into the cytoplasm it tells Glycolysis to slow down because we have lots of energy. 

44

 

 

 

What's AMP Role's in Glycolysis

 

 

 

AMP tells glycolysis to speed up

45

 

 

 

Storing Energy

 

 

Can’t store ATP because if we stored energy as ATP it would feedback inhibit ATP production. That’s why we store as creatine phosphate in muscle. 

46

 

 

 

F-2,6-BisPhosphate's role in Glycolysis?

 

 

 

Fructose 2,6 Bisphosphate is a major activator of PFK-1 which activates glycolysis. 

47

 

 

 

Where does F2,6BP come from?

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48

 

 

 

What is velocity?

 

 

 

The rate at which the product of the reactoin is formed.

49

 

 

 

How does F-2,6-BP Effect the Activity Profile of

PFK-1?

 

 

F-2,6-BP reduces substrate concentration required for enzyme to reach 1/2 maximal velocity. 

The Maximum velocity does not change but the amount of substrate required to reach that velocity is decreased. 

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50

 

 

 

Which curve is more active and which is more inhibited?

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More active curve is to the left — enzyme is active at lower substrate concentrations.

More inhibited curve to the right

51

 

 

 

What are ATP's two roles with PFK-1?

 

ATP has two roles in this enzyme — at low ATP conc. it allows it to proceed because its a substrate. But as we increase the ATP it starts to be an inhibitor. That’s why we see the curve go up then down.

 

Mixed allosteric function. First as a substrate then once too it becomes too much it becomes inhibited. 

 

52

The glycolytic rate can be increased by which one of the following?

Increasing G6P levels 

Increasing ATP levels

Increasing citrate levels

Increasing pyruvate levels

Increasing NAD+ levels 

 

Increasing G6P levels (We increase g6p we’ll make more F6P which will increase substrate and increase the rate)

 

Increasing NAD+ levels — won’t allow glycolysis to increase rate unless we also increase the substrate in that specific enzyme.

53

A key difference between liver and muscle glycolysis is which one of the following?

 

F2,6 bp is not Important in muscle

Lactate formation Is exclusive to liver

Glucokinase vx. Hexokinase

Amp only actives in muscle

Muscle will not slow down glycolysis in presence of ATP 

 

 

 

Lactate formation Is exclusive to liver

54

What hormone is released when blood glucose levels drop?

Insulin 

Glucagon

Vitamin D

Acetylcholine

 

 

 

Glucagon

55

 

 

 

Hormonal Regulation of PFK-2 in Liver

 

 

 

R is regulatory subunit

C is catalytic subunit

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56

 

 

 

Why don't muscle cells respond to low blood sugar?

 

 

 

 

Muscle cells do not have glucagon receptors. Muscle cells don’t respond to low blood glucose. 

57

 

 

 

When PFK2 is NOT phosphorylated

 

 

 

When PFK2 is not phosphorylated it acts as a kinase

58

 

 

 

When PFK2 is phosphorylated...

 

 

 

When PFK2 is phosphorylated it acts as a phosphatase

59

 

 

 

By phosphorylating PFK2

 

 

 

By phosphorylating PFK2 we are destroying F 2,6 BP. 

60

 

 

 

Skeletal Muscle Isozyme of PFK-2...

 

 

 

Skeletal Muscle Isozyme of PFK2 never gets phosphorylated. PFK2 in skeletal muscle is only regulated allosterically. 

61

 

 

 

More on PFK-2

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Skeletal muscle does have protein kinase A but...

 

 

Skeletal muscle does have protein kinase A but it does not phosphorylate PFK2 because in the skeletal muscle it’s not a substrate for that enzyme. 

63

 

 

 

PFK-2 Regulation in the Liver vs. Muscle

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64

 

 

 

Heart PFK-2

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65

 

 

 

Regulation of Hexokinase vs. Glucokinase

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66

 

 

 

G6P's effect on Glucokinase vs. Hexokinase

 

 

 

G6p is an allosteric inhibitor of Hexokinase. G6p is not however a regulator of Glucokinase. 

67

 

 

 

3 Forms of Pyruvate Kinase

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68

 

 

 

L-Form of Pyruvate Kinase

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69

 

 

 

M-Form of Pyruvate Kinase

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70

 

 

 

Explain the Role of cAMP dependent protein kinase in the liver

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71

Which one of these correctly describes the activity state of key glycolytic enzymes if you go for a run after waking up without eating breakfast.

Muscle and liver pfk1 are active

Only liver pfk1 is active

Muscle and liver pfk2 are active (kinase activity) 

Only liver Pfk2 is active (kinase activity) 

Only muscle PFK-1 and PFK2 kinase activities are active

 

Only muscle PFK-1 and PFK2 kinase activities are active

 

Muscle and liver pfk2 are active (kinase activity) — no in the liver its the phosphatase activity

 

Only liver Pfk2 is active (kinase activity) — no again it’s phosphatase activity is active

72

 

 

 

Allosteric Regulation vs. Covalent Modification

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73

 

 

 

Regulation of Liver vs. Skeletal Muscle

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74

 

 

Where does the liver get its energy for its own function when blood glucose is low?

 

 

Liver gets its own energy from the Fatty Acids which are released when glucagon is present.

75

Arsenic poisoning is due to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in the toxin arsenal was as a phosphate analog but arseon-anhydride bonds are unstable and rapidly hydrolyzed in water which glycolytic enzyme catalyzers a reaction that would be most affected by the presence of arsenate:

Glucokinase

PFK -1

PFK-2

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Pyruvate Kinase

Lactate dehydrogenase

 

 

 

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (only enzyme that uses a free inorganic phosphate so it will be affected) 

76

Fluoride inhibits enolase, and is used in water and toothpaste to keep oral bacteria from growing and creating dental caries. Red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency can lead to mild anemia. which of the following glycolytic intermediates would accumulate in common in both of these conditions?

 

Pyruvate only

Glucose only

Pep only 

3-phosphoglycerate only

2-phosphoglycerate only

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate only

1, 2, 3

4, 5, 6

1, 3, 5

2, 4, 6

Pyruvate only

Glucose only

Pep only 

3-phosphoglycerate only

2-phosphoglycerate only

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate only

1, e, 3

4, 5, 6

1, 3, 5

2, 4, 6

77

 

 

 

Differential Regulation 

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78

 

 

 

Describe the Cori Cycle

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79

 

 

 

Why Enzyme Kinetics?

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80

 

 

 

Enzyme Kinetics

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81

 

 

 

What are the two Major Assumptions in Enzyme Kinetics

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82

 

 

 

K1

 

 

 

Rate constant for ES complex Formation

83

 

 

 

K2

 

 

 

Rate constant for ES complex Breakdown

84

 

 

 

K3

 

 

 

Rate consent for Product formation

85

 

 

 

Derive the Michaelis-Menton Equation based on the assumptions made.

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86

 

 

 

What happens when V = 1/2 Vmax

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87

 

 

 

Km for glucokinase vs. Hexokinase

 

 

 

Km for Glucokinase is about 7mmolar which is much higher than km for hexokinase

88

 

 

 

Is Km a true measure for affinity?

 

 

Km for Glucokinase is about 7mmolar which is much higher than km for hexokinase

This is is not a true measurement for affinity

89

 

 

 

Graphical Representation of the Michaelis Menton Equation

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90

 

 

 

Lineweaver Burk Derivation

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91

 

 

 

Lineweaver Burk Plot

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92

 

 

 

Km and Vmax

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93

 

 

 

Competitive Inhibitors

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94

 

 

 

Non-Competitive Inhibitors

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95

 

 

 

Explain the concept of Apparent Km

 

 

When an inhibitor is present you need more substrate to kickoff inhibitor and get to the necessary km that is half Vmax. That’s why we call it the apparent km because the concentration is much more not because the actual km has changed but because you also have to take into account additional substrate amount to kick off the inhibitor. 

96

 

 

 

How do most drugs effect enzyme activity?

 

 

 

Most drugs inhibit enzyme activity. 

97

 

 

 

Lineweaver Burk of Competitive Inhibition

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98

 

 

 

Lineweaver Burk Plot for Non-Competitive Inhibition

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99

If the Vmax of enzyme 1 is 20 units per sec and the Vmax of enzyme 2 is 10 units/sec then the Km”s of the enzymes can be related by which of the following? 

 

The km of enzyme 1 is one half that of enzyme 2

We cannot determine it from the data we have.

 

 

 

We cannot determine it from the data we have.

100

 

 

Summary of Enzyme Kinetics

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101

 

 

 

Summary of Inhibitors in Enzyme Kinetics

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102

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Hyperglycemia

103

An individual has inherertided a mutation in the regulatory subunit of pea which has greatly reduced affinity for camp during fasting this mutation lead to which one of the following?

 

Hypoglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Hyperactive muscle glycolysis

Hyperactive liver glycolysis 

 

 

 

Hypoglycemia

104

 

A classification of pre-obese refers to a BMI of 

15-18.4

18.5 -24.9

25-29.9

30-39.9

> 40

 

 

 

25-29.9

105

What is the velocity of an enzyme catalyses reaction when [S] is 0.5 k

Vmax

0.25 vmax

0.33 vmax

0.5 vmax

0.67 vmax

0.75 vmax

 

 

 

0.33 vmax

106

Dietary fructose is obtained primarily from which one of the following?

Starch

Milk

Apples

French Fries

Pizza

 

 

 

Apples

107

 

 

 

Fructose Metabolism

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108

 

 

 

Fructose and Galactose come from...

 

 

 

Fructose and Galactose come from dishaccarides.

They enter glycolysis but in different ways. 

109

 

 

 

Where does all of our fructose get metabolised?

 

 

 

Liver metabolizes all of our Fructose

110

 

 

 

Features of Fructokinase

 

 

 

This enzyme has a low Km and High Vmax* — Low substrate concentration and works very fast. 

111

 

 

 

Aldolase B

 

 

 

Aldolase B — Found in Liver— Only in liver— F1,6BP

112

Which key regulatory step is skipped when fructose enters glycolysis?

 

Hexokinase

Glucokinase

Gructokinase

PFK-1

PFK-2

Pyruvate

 

 

 

PFK-1  — Which means it’s hard to regulate 

113

 

 

 

IV Fructose Loading 

 

 

 

 

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115

 

 

 

Is IV Fructose loading the same as eating excess fructose?

 

 

 

No, Direct injection of fructose into the veins not through eating

116

 

 

 

Fructokinase Velocity and Substrate Concentration

 

 

 

High Vmax but low Km

117

 

 

 

Essential Fructosuria

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118

 

 

Explain what happens when you give someone IV Glucose

 

 

If you give someone IV fructose you get lots of lactic acid which overcomes the buffering capacity of the blood and blood pH begins to drop — not good

Individuals given IV fructose almost died so we use IV glucose instead. 

119

 

 

 

Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

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Is Essential Fructosuria Worrysome?

 

 

No ill effects from this disorder. But because there’s fructose in the urine it gives a positive test for a reducing sugar test. Glucose also tests positive which is used to test for diabetes so fructosuria can misleadingly tell you someone has diabetes

123

 

 

 

Explain how Hereditary Fructose Intolerance is Managed

 

 

Self-limiting disease — if born with mutation — they would throw up after apple sauce and you’d then stop giving it to them. The treatment is an appropriate diet that doesn’t have fructose. 

124

 

 

 

Aldolase A and C vs. Aldose B

 

 

 

Aldolase A and C cannot split F-1,6-BP but B can split either F1P or F16BP

125

 

 

 

What happens when F1P is high

 

 

 

When F1P is high you have a problem with glycogen degradation

126

 

 

 

How Does Uric Acid Effect the Kidney?

 

 

 

Uric acid blocks ability of the kidney to remove lactate from the blood making acidosis worse. 

127

The net yield of ATP when fructose is converted to 2 Molecules of Pyruvate is:

No ATP

1 ATP

2 ATP

3 ATP

4 ATP

 

 

 

2 ATP

128

 

 

 

How Much Net Yeild of ATP does Fructose use compared to Glucose

 

 

 

Fructose has the same net yield of ATP as Glucose

129

 

 

 

Galactose Metabolism

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What is Galactosemia?

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131

 

 

 

Galactosemia Classic Type

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Non-Classical Galactosemia

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What foods have Galactose?

 

 

 

Galactose is from anything derived from milk. E.g. Cheese

134

 

 

 

Galactose vs. Glucose

 

 

 

Galactose is an epimer of Glucose — Hydroxyl is on opposite side at carbon 4 of glucose.

135

 

 

 

UDP-Glucose

 

 

UDP-Glucose is an Activated Glucose

UDP-Glucose is always regenerate so you only need small amount

138

 

 

 

The Polyol Pathway

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How do you treat Galactosemia?

 

 

 

By removing Galactose from Diet.

141

 

 

 

Phosphoglucomutase

 

 

 

Phosphoglucomutase is necessary to get glucose from Glycogen. 

142

 

 

 

Digestion and Absorbtion of Carbohydrates

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143

 

 

 

Starch 

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144

 

 

 

Dietary Carbohydrates

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145

 

 

 

Digestion of Starch

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146

 

 

 

Galactitol

 

 

 

Galactitol creates an osmotic Imbalance in the eye. 

147

 

 

 

Cataract Formation in Galactosemia

 

 

 

Rapid formation of cataracts in both classical and non-classical

148

 

 

 

Starch Digestion Continued

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149

The net yield when one mole of galactose is converted to 2 moles of pyruvate is:

0 Moles of ATP

1 Mole of ATP

2 Moles of ATP

3 Moles of ATP

4 Moles of ATP

 

 

2 Moles of ATP

 

Just like glucose it only takes one ATP to get from Galactose to G6P just like one Glucose takes one ATP to Get to G-6P

150

 

 

 

Brush Border Membrane of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

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151

 

 

 

Sucrase Iso-Multase Complex

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152

 

 

 

Glucoamalyse Complex

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153

 

 

 

More Brush Border Enzymes

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154

 

 

 

Isomaltase Enzyme Activity

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155

 

 

 

Sucrase, Isomaltase, and glucoamylase enzyme activities

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156

 

 

 

Lactase Activity

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157

 

 

 

Lactose Intolerance

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158

 

 

 

Transport of Monosaccharides

 

Transporter allows glucose to be concentrated inside the lumen.

Fructose only transported via a Facilitated transporter. 

Glucose transport is coupled to sodium transport

Sodium potassium ATP-ase Na is primary transported and Glucosed is secondarily transported. 

Sodium gradient drives Glucose active transport

Sodium Potassium ATP-ase uses ATP and 3 Na in to drive movement of glucose and galactose in. 

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Glucose Accumulation and Diabetes

 

 

Glucose accumulation, from diabetes, will be reduced to sorbitol which will get trapped in the eye and forms cataracts.

161

 

 

 

High Glucose levels and HbA1C levels?

 

 

High glucose leads to non-enzymatic glycosylation— hbA1C is elevated because it is a glycosylated protein.  HbAIC is used as a measure of glycemic control, how well you can control your blood sugar. Is it greater than the normal 5%?

162

 

 

 

What happens to Nervous System when Glucose levels are high?

 

 

 

Nervous system proteins also gets glycosylated which leads to neuropathy.

165

 

 

 

Glut -1 

 

 

 

GLut1 is a low km transporter

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166

 

 

 

Glut 2

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167

 

 

 

Glut 3

 

 

 

Glut 3— two glucose transporters are needed to get glucose into the neurons. 

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168

 

 

 

Glut 4

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169

 

 

 

Glut 5

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170

 

 

 

Glut 1 Deficiency Syndrome

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171

 

 

 

Glycolysis and Diabetes

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172

 

 

 

Glycolysis and Diabetes in the Liver

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175

 

 

 

Where do Proteins Get Digested?

 

 

 

Proteins get digested in the stomach. 

176

 

 

 

Gluconeogenesis 

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177

 

 

 

Reactions that reverse the Pyruvate Kinase Step of Glycolysis 

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178

 

 

 

Reaction that Reverses the PFK-1 Reaction

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179

 

 

 

Reaction that Reverses Glucokinase (Liver and Pancrease)/Hexokinase (all other tissues)

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180

 

 

 

Are fats and carbs digested in the somach?

 

 

 

Fats and carbs are not digested in the stomach. 

182

 

 

 

Inflammation of the Pancreas

 

 

Inflammation of Pancreas will lead to pancreatic amylase in the blood which makes it a marker for Pancreatic inflammation.

183

 

 

 

Compartmentation issues in Gluconeogenesis

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Draw out the overview of regulation of Gluconeogenesis

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185

 

 

 

Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis when levels of blood sugar is high

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186

 

 

 

Regualtion of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis when Glucose levels are low in the blood

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187

 

 

 

Summary of Gluconeogenesis

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188

 

 

 

Signal Transduction

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189

 

 

 

Structure of the Insulin Receptor

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190

 

 

 

Tyrosine Kinase Activity

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191

 

 

 

What is IRS-1

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192

 

 

 

Glucagon Receptor

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193

 

 

 

G-Proteins

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194

 

 

 

G - Protein Cycle

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195

 

 

 

G-Protein Regulation

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197

 

 

 

Cholera and Pertussis 

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198

 

 

 

Diabetes Revisited

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199

 

 

 

 

Summary of Signal Transduction

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208

 

 

 

Transporters...

 

 

 

Transporter allows glucose to be concentrated inside the lumen.

209

 

 

 

Fructose and Transport

 

 

 

Fructose only transported via a Facilitated transporter. 

210

 

 

 

What is Glucose Transport Coupled With?

 

 

 

Glucose transport is coupled to sodium transport

211

 

 

 

Primary vs. Secondary Transport

 

 

 

Sodium potassium ATP-ase Na is primary transported and Glucosed is secondarily transported. 

212

 

 

 

What drives glucose into serosal side of the intestine?

 

 

 

Sodium gradient drives Glucose active transport

213

 

 

 

What does the sodium potassium pump use?

 

 

 

Sodium Potassium ATP-ase uses ATP and 3 Na in to drive movement of glucose and galactose in. 

222

 

 

 

NASH

 

 

Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

NASH— Fat accumulation in the liver. — Found in diabetics with poor control of sugar levels. 

223

Young girl has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. one of her symptoms was blurry vision, which occurred tue to which of the following:

Elevated glucose in the urine

Elevated glucose in the blood

The production of HbA1c

Altered Glut4 Proteins

Reduction of Glucose 

Oxidation of glucose 

 

 

 

Reduction of Glucose — ( Glucose going to sorbitol is a reduction of glucose — sorbitol leads to blurred vision)

224

Which one of the following enzymatic reactions needs to be bypassed in synthesizing glucose from pyruvate.

G3PDH

Enolase

Phosphoglyrcerate kinase

Pyruvate kinase

Aldolase

 

 

 

Pyruvate kinase

229

Starting with two molecules of lactate, ho many molecules of ATP/GTP are required to synthesize one glucose molecule?

2

3

4

5

7

8

 

 

 

230

 

 

 

Anabolic vs. Catabolic

 

 

 

Always takes more energy to make something than to degrade it. 

231

 

 

 

What is a symptom for someone with a defect of FATTY Acid Oxidation

 

 

 

Hypoglycemia because a lack of energy to perform gluconeogenesis. 

245

If the GTPase activity of a G protein were mutated, and rendered inactive, which one of the following would occur?

 

Inactivation of a G protein activity

Constant activation of G protein Activity

No effect on G Protein

 

 

 

Constant activation of G protein Activity

246

 

 

 

Galactose Metabolismm

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Decks in Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine Class (77):