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Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > Nucleus Pt. II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nucleus Pt. II Deck (48):
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What's the difference between an GTP-ase and an Exchange Factor

 

 

Ase— suffix means it hydrolyzes and GTP to GDP or ATP to ADP

Exchange Factor — Not a hydrolysis reaction but an exchange — it switches them out. 

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Quickly draw an image with all the following features:

 

Cytosol

Nuclear Envelope

Nucleus

Chromatin

Nuclear Pore

Nuclear Lamina

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What is Chromatin?

Size and number of folds of DNA?

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Definition of Chromatin

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What are the histone Proteins?

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Features of DNA

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Chromatin Fiber

 

 

 

Derived from an extended array of nucleosomes

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Chromatin Higher Order Structure

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Chromatin

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Euchromatin Vs. Heterochromatin 

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Reading the Histone Code

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Epigenetics

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Genetics vs. Epigenetics

 

Genetics — DNA Sequence

Epigenetic’s — Histone Modifications — Actually be inherited — Tells you what histones to acetylate/Methylate and therefore what genes to activate and deactivate. 

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Function and Overview of the Cell Cycle

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Steps in the Mitotic Cell Cycle

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Cell Cycle Check Points

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Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression

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Cyclin/CDK Regulation 

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G1 - S Transition Regulation 

Without RB you lose G1 to S checkpoint so it goes from G1 to S freely and a lot of genetic mistakes/mutations can occur. 

Lose RB means you lose the suppression of tumor formation. 

If you have a mutation of NES means too much Cyclin D in the nucleus then phosphorylates proteins too early in G1 and sometimes in s-phase and drives the cycle forward prematurely. 

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CDK/Cyclin regulation of S-Phase

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Cyclin/CDK regulation of G2 to M to G1

 

 

Mitotic CDK/Cyclin — Cyclin B

Cyclin B levels rise then complexes with CDK

CDK phosphorylates 100’s of proteins.

Lamina Proteins depolymerize 

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Interphase

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Prophase

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Metaphase

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Anaphase

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Telophase

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Completion of Cytokinesis 

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Interphase Cont.

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Prophase Cont.

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Prophase Cont.

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Difference between Meiosis and Mitosis

 

 

 

Meiosis has two cell divisions not just one. Because homologous choromosomes in meiosis they line up on the same equatorial plane they undergo homologous recombination.

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What is a Karyotype

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Steps for creating a Karyotype

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Normal vs. Altered Karyotype

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Identifying Chromosomes

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What can you infer from this image?

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What is FISH?

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How does FISH Work?

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Chromosome Painting/Spectral Karyotyping

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What are we Looking for in Chromosome Painting 

 

 

Looking for loss or scrambling of chromosomes. 

Very common in certain types of cancer to have scrambled karyotypes. 

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What disease is associated with this Karyotype?

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