What are the conclusions of this study?
40% of the reasons behind childhood mortality could be due to genetic components.
Genetic Disease are very common. Most common is cancer.
Who discovered Genes are made of DNA?
No Nobel Prize though
What are the two sugars in nucleic acids?
Draw the Structure of ATP
How many purines are there?
How many Pyrimidines are there?
What's the difference between DNA and RNA
RNA has a 2' Hydroxy group whereas DNA as a 2' Hydrogen -- Makes it more stable/less reactive than RNA
What are the 4 Nucleotides in DNA?
Nucleoside vs. Nucleotide
Nucleoside no phosphate group
Nucleotide has the phosphate group
Ribonucleotides vs. Nucleotides?
How are phosphates linked to a nucleotide?
Orientation of a DNA Segment.
Draw a segment.
What is Chargaff's Rule?
Hydrogen Bonding Occurs Between..
Which is more stable G-C interactions or A-T? and Why?
When RNA is involved in base pairing
What's the difference between T and U when it comes to RNA.
T = DNA
U = RNA
Difference between T and U there’s a 5’ methyl Group
How are DNA chains organized
one chain runs 5’ to 3’ and another chain runs 3’ to 5'
Anti-parralel and Opposite Polarity
Double Stranded DNA?
Right Handed Helix
Approx. 10 Bp per Turn
For every A there must be a T
and for every G there must be a C
Base Pair orientation to helix
Base Pairs are perpendicular to helix
Wide and Shallow
Coding Information is easily accessible
Narrow and deep
Restricted access to base pairs and information
How do proteins access specific base pairs? And which groove do they use?
What Makes DNA more stable than RNA?
Significance of 2' OH in RNA
Oh functional group on RNA is reactive and so it makes it less stable than DNA.
RNA has been adapted for a number of uses: Messenger, Catalytic Activity, etc.
Explain this graph
Explain this graph
What is Tm
Represents 50% Denaturation
The More C-G base pairs...
The Higher the Melting Temperature (Tm) needed
What happens when temperature is reduced after heating?
Renaturation, annealing, or hybridization.
Pathologic Detection via FISH
Uses the feature of hybridization
Diagnostic RFLP and PCR
Use the feature of hybridization
How many chromosomes in a human female?
How many chromosomes in a Human Male?
Chromosome painting is a form of...
Describe this Image.
Principles of Central Dogma
Watson and Crick on DNA self Replication
Describe the Process of DNA Replication
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What is HIV
Retroviral agent that causes AIDS
Describe the procces of Reverse Transcriptase.
What is the goal anti-retroviral chemotherapy?
Blocking parts of the cycle is the goal of anti-retroviral chemotherapy.
What does Reverse Transcriptase Use and How can we block it?
Describe the structure and MOA of AZT
What are the 5 representative anti-retroviral dideoxynucleosides
Logic behind anti-retroviral dideoxynucleosides
Moving Beyond the Central Dogma
Major Take Home Points