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Fundamentals of Molecular Medicine > DNA Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA Structure Deck (53):
1

 

 

 

What are the conclusions of this study?

 

 

40% of the reasons behind childhood mortality could be due to genetic components. 

Genetic Disease are very common. Most common is cancer. 

2

 

 

 

Who discovered Genes are made of DNA?

 

 

 

Oswald Avery

No Nobel Prize though

3

 

 

 

What are the two sugars in nucleic acids?

Draw them.

4

 

 

 

Draw the Structure of ATP

5

 

 

 

How many purines are there?

Draw them.

6

 

 

 

How many Pyrimidines are there?

Draw them.

7

 

 

 

What's the difference between DNA and RNA

 

 

 

RNA has a 2' Hydroxy group whereas DNA as a 2' Hydrogen -- Makes it more stable/less reactive than RNA

8

 

 

 

What are the 4 Nucleotides in DNA?

Draw them.

9

 

 

 

Nucleoside vs. Nucleotide

 

 

 

Nucleoside no phosphate group

Nucleotide has the phosphate group

10

 

 

 

Ribonucleotides vs. Nucleotides?

How are phosphates linked to a nucleotide?

 

11

 

 

 

Orientation of a DNA Segment.

Draw a segment.

12

 

 

 

What is Chargaff's Rule?

13

 

 

 

Hydrogen Bonding Occurs Between..

14

 

 


Which is more stable G-C interactions or A-T? and Why?

15

 

 

 

When RNA is involved in base pairing 

16

 

 

 

What's the difference between T and U when it comes to RNA.

 

 

T = DNA

U = RNA

Difference between T and U there’s a 5’ methyl Group

17

 

 

 

How are DNA chains organized 

 

 

one chain runs 5’ to 3’ and another chain runs 3’ to 5'

Anti-parralel and Opposite Polarity

18

 

 

 

Model?

19

 

 

 

Model?

20

 

 

 

Double Stranded DNA?

 

 

 

Right Handed Helix

Approx. 10 Bp per Turn

21

 

 

 

Complementary

 

 

For every A there must be a T

and for every G there must be a C

22

 

 

 

Base Pair orientation to helix

 

 

 

Base Pairs are perpendicular to helix

23

 

 

 

Major Groove

 

 

Wide and Shallow

Coding Information is easily accessible

24

 

 

 

Minor Groove

 

 

 

Narrow and deep

Restricted access to base pairs and information

25

 

 

 

How do proteins access specific base pairs? And which groove do they use?

26

 

 


What Makes DNA more stable than RNA?

27

 

 

 

Significance of 2' OH in RNA

 

 

Oh functional group on RNA is reactive and so it makes it less stable than DNA.

RNA has been adapted for a number of uses: Messenger, Catalytic Activity, etc. 

28

 

 

Explain this graph

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

Explain this graph

30

 

 

 

What is Tm

 

 

Melting Temperature

Represents 50% Denaturation

31

 

 

 

The More C-G base pairs...

 

 

 

The Higher the Melting Temperature (Tm) needed

32

 

 

 

What happens when temperature is reduced after heating?

 

 

 

Renaturation, annealing, or hybridization.

33

 

 

 

Pathologic Detection via FISH

 

 

 

Uses the feature of hybridization 

34

 

 

 

Diagnostic RFLP and PCR 

 

 

 

Use the feature of hybridization 

35

 

 

 

How many chromosomes in a human female?

 

 

 

23

36

 

 

 

How many chromosomes in a Human Male?

 

 

 

24

37

 

 

 

Chromosome painting is a form of...

 

 

 

FISH

38

 

 

 

Describe this Image.

39

 

 

 

Central Dogma

40

 

 

 

Principles of Central Dogma

41

 

 

 

Watson and Crick on DNA self Replication

42

 

 

 

Describe the Process of DNA Replication

43

 

 

 

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

44

 

 

 

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

45

 

 

 

What is HIV

 

 

 

Retroviral agent that causes AIDS

46

 

 

 

Describe the procces of Reverse Transcriptase.

What is the goal anti-retroviral chemotherapy?

 

 

 

Blocking parts of the cycle is the goal of anti-retroviral chemotherapy.

47

 

 

 

What does Reverse Transcriptase Use and How can we block it?

48

 

 

 

Describe the structure and MOA of AZT

49

 

 

 

What are the 5 representative anti-retroviral dideoxynucleosides

50

 

 

 

Logic behind anti-retroviral dideoxynucleosides

51

 

 

 

 

52

 

 

 

Moving Beyond the Central Dogma

53

 

 

 

Major Take Home Points

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