1. Ille dux nescīvit cōnsilium nūntiātum esse ...
1. That leader did not know that the plan had been announced ...
1b. et sē imperium prōtinus susceptūrum esse.
1b. and that he would immediately undertake supreme command.
2. “Quīdam,” inquit, “imperium quondam petēbant ...
2. “Some (people),” he/she says, “were once seeking the supreme command ...
2b. et līberōs virōs opprimere cupiēbant.”
2b and wanted to oppress free men.”
3. Eōdem diē decem mīlia hostium ab duce fidēlissimō āversa ac pulsa sunt;
3. On the same day ten thousand (of the) enemies were turned away and driven out by the most loyal leader;
3b. multī mīlitēs vulnera recēperant et in agrīs iacēbant.
3b. many soldiers had received wounds and were lying in the fields.
4. Morte tyrannī ferōcis nūntiātā,
4. Since the death of the fierce tyrant has been announced, [ablative absolute]
4b. quisque sē ad ōrātōrem potentissimum magnā spē vertit.
4b. each (person) changes himself/herself with great hope into a most powerful speaker.
5. Rīdēns, scrīptor illīus fābulae sapiēns aliquid iūcundius dehinc nārrāvit.
5. Laughing, the wise writer of that story next told (about) something more pleasant.
6. Hīs rēbus audītīs,
6. Now that these affairs have been heard, [ablative absolute],
6b. adulēscentēs geminī propter pecūniae cupiditātem studium litterārum relinquent.
6b. the twin young men will leave the study of literature for the sake of money [propter + acc.].
7. Rēgīna fortissima Carthāginis posteā ostendit fidem semper esse sibi cāriōrem dīvitiīs.
7. The bravest queen of Carthage afterwards showed [could also be present] that fidelity was always more dear to her than riches. [ablative of comparison]
8. Negāvit sē umquam vīdisse servam fidēliōrem quam hanc.
8. He/she denied that he/she had ever seen a more faithful slave [female] than this one.
9. Iūcundior modus vītae hominibus nunc quaerendus est.
9. Humans should look now for a a more pleasant way of life [passive periphrastic].
10. Crēdimus illōs vīgintī līberōs virōs fēmināsque vītam quam iūcundissimam agere.
10. We believe that those twenty free men and women are leading the most pleasant life possible.
11. Imperātor centum mīlitēs fortissimōs prae sē heri mīsit.
11. Yesterday the general sent a hundred extremely brave soldiers ahead of him(self).
12. Lūx in illā casā nōn fuit clārissima,
12. The light in that house was not the brightest,
12b. quod familia paucās fenestrās patefēcerat.
12b. because the family had opened few windows.
13. Amīcōs tristēs excēpit, ad mēnsam invītāvit,
13. He/she received the sad friends [male], invited them to the table,
13b et eīs perfugium ac sōlācium hīc dedit.
13b. and gave them a refuge and consolation here.
14. What is sweeter than a pleasant life? (use quam)
14. Quid est dulcius quam vīta iūcunda?
15. Certain men, however, say that death is sweeter than life (use ablative of comparison).
15. Quīdam virī, autem, dīcunt mortem dulciōrem vītā.
16. When these three very sure signs had been reported, [ablative absolute]
16. Hīs tribus certīs signīs nūntiātīs,
16b. we sought advice and comfort from the most powerful leader.
16b. cōnsilium et sōlācium quaesīvimus dē duce potentissimō.
17. In that story the author says that all men seek as happy lives as possible.
17. In illā fābula auctor āit omnēs virōs quaerere vītās quam fēlicissimās.
18. This light is always brighter than the other. [use quam]
18. Haec lūx semper clārior est quam alia.
1. Senectūs est loquācior.
1. Old age is quite garrulous.
2. Tua cōnsilia omnia nōbīs clāriōra sunt quam lūx.
2. All your councils [i.e. pieces of advice] are brighter to us than light.
3. Quaedam remedia graviōra sunt quam ipsa perīcula.
3. Certain [= some] remedies are more serious than the dangers themselves.
4. Eō diē virōs fortissimōs atque amantissimōs reī pūblicae ad mē vocāvī.
4. On that day I called to myself men who were extremely brave and extremely patriotic.
5. Quī imperia libēns accēpit, partem acerbissimam servitūtis vītat.
5. (He) who willing(ly) accepts commands, avoids the harshest part of slavery.
6. Iūcundissima dōna, ut āiunt, semper sunt ea quae auctor ipse cāra facit.
6. The most pleasant gifts, so they say, are always those which the author himself makes dear.
7. Beātus sapiēnsque vir forum vītat et superba līmina potentiōrum civium.
7. The blessed and wise man avoids the forum and the proud threshholds of powerful citizens.
8. Quid est turpius quam ab aliquō illūdī?
8. What is more shameful than to be deceived by someone [male]?
9. Quid enim est stultius quam incerta prō certīs habēre, falsa prō vērīs?
9. For what is more stupid than to regard incertain things as certain ones, false things as true?
10. Saepe mihi dīcis, cārissime amīce:
10. Often you say to me, dearest friend [male],
10b “Scrībe aliquid magnum; dēsidiōsissimus homō es.”
10a. “Write something big; you are an extremely lazy person.”
11. Verba currunt; at manus nōtariī est vēlōcior illīs;
11. Words run; but the hand of the stenographer is swifter than them [lit. “those things”];
11b nōn lingua mea, sed manus eius, labōrem perfēcit.
11b. Not my tongue, but his hand, completes the work.
12. Multī putant rēs bellicās graviōrēs esse quam rēs urbānās;
12. Many (people) think that warlike affairs are more serious than urban affairs;
12b. sed haec sententia mūtanda est,
12a. but this opinion has to be changed;
12c. nam multae rēs urbānae sunt graviōrēs clariōrēsque quam bellicae.
12b. for many urban affairs are more serious and more famous than warlike (ones).
13. Invītātus ad cēnam, manū sinistrā lintea neglegentiōrum sustulistī.
13. Having been invited to dinner [male, singular], you took with your left hand the napkins of the rather careless (people).
13b. Hoc salsum esse putās?
13b. Do you think this (thing) is witty?
13c. Rēs sordidissima est!
13c. The matter is completely dirty!
13d. Itaque mihi lenteum remitte.
14. And so send the napkin back to me.
1. Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs,
1. All Gaul has been divided into three parts,
2. quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae,
2. one part of which the Belgae inhabit,
3. aliam Aquītānī,
3. another (part of which) the Aquitani (inhabit),
4. tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur.
4. the third (part of which) (those) who in their own language are called Celts, in our language Gauls (inhabit).
5. Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt.
5. All these (people) differ among themselves in language, customs, (and) laws.
6. Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, A Belgīs Matrona et Sequana dīvidit.
6. The river Garonne river (divides) the Gauls from the Aquitani, the Marne and the Seine divide(s) (the Gauls) from the Belgae.
Note: in Latin two singular subjects can take a singular verb as well as a plural; in other words, when the subject consists of two or more words, the verb can agree with the word mentioned last.
7. Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae.
7. The bravest of all these (peoples) are the Belgae.
1. Haec sunt, amīce iūcundissime, quae vītam faciunt beātiōrem;
1. These (things), my most delightful friend [male], are (those) which mak life more blessed;
2. rēs nōn facta labōre sed a patre relicta, ager felix̄,
2. wealth not bade by labor but left by a father, a blessed farm,
3. parvum forī et satis ōtiī,
3. a small (amount) of forum [i.e. lawsuits] and enough (of) leisure,
4. mēns aequa, vīrēs et corpus sānum,
4. a calm mind, strength and a healthy body,
5. sapientia, amīcī vērī,
5. wisdom, true friends,
6. sine arte mēnsa,
6. a table without artifice,
7. nox nōn ebria sed solūta cūrīs,
7. nightime (that is) not drunken but released from cares,
8. nōn trīstis torus et tamen pudīcus,
8. a bed (that is) not sad but (is) nevertheless modest,
9. somnus facilis.
9. (and) easy sleep.
10. Dēsīderā tantum quod habēs,
10. Desire only what you have,
11. cupe nihil;
11. Covet nothing;
12. nōlī timēre ultimum diem aut spērāre.
note: the regular construction for a negative command is the imperative of nōlō (nōlī, sg., nōlīte, pl.) + infinitive.
12. do not fear the last day, or hope (for it).