1. Officium līberōs virōs semper vocābat.
1. Duty was always calling (on) free men.
2. Habēbimusne multōs virōs et fēminās magnōrum animōrum?
2. Will we have many men and women with (of) great minds?
3. Perīcula bellī nōn sunt parva, sed patria tua tē vocābit et agricolae adiuvābunt.
3. The dangers of wall are not small, but your country will call (on) you and the farmers will help.
4. Propter culpās malōrum patria nostra nōn valēbit.
4. Because of the faults of evil (men) our country will not fare well.
5. Mora animōs nostrōs superābat et remedium nōn habēbāmus.
5. Delay used to overcome our spirits and we had no cure.
6. Multī in agrīs heri manēbant et Romānōs iuvābant.
6. Many (men) were staying in the fields yesterday and were helping the Romans.
7. Paucī virī dē cūrā animī cōgitābant.
7. Few men were thinking about the care of the soul.
8. Propter īram in culpā estis et crās poenās dabitis.
8. On account of anger you [pl.] are at (in) fault and tomorrow you [pl.] will pay the penalty (penalties).
9. Vērum ōtium nōn habēs, vir stulte!
9. You do not have true leisure, stupid man!
10a. Nihil est sine culpā;
10a. Nothing is without fault;
10b. sumus bonī, sī paucās habēmus.
10b. We are good (men), if we have a few (faults).
11. Poēta amīcae multās rosās, dōna pulchra, et bāsia dabat.
11. The poet was giving (to) his girlfriend many roses, beautiful gifts, and kisses.
12. Will war and destruction always remain in our land?
12. Bellumne et exitium in patriā semper manēbunt?
13. Does money satisfy the greedy man?
13. Pecūniane avārum satiat?
14. Therefore, you (sg.) will save the reputation of our foolish boys.
14. Servābis igitur fāmam puerōrum nostrōrum stultōrum.
15. Money and glory were conquering the soul of a good man.
15. Pecūnia et glōria animum bonī virī superābant.
16. Invidiam populī Romānī crās nōn sustinēbis.
16. Tomorrow you will not endure the dislike of the Roman people.
17. Perīculumne igitur heri remanēbat?
17. Therefore was danger continuing yesterday?
18. Angustus animus pecūniam amat.
18. A narrow mind loves money.
19. Superā animōs et īram tuam.
19. Conquer (your) pride and your [sg.] anger.
20. Culpa est mea, Ō amīcī.
20. The fault is mine, o friends.
21. Dā veniam fīliō et fīliābus nostrīs.
21. Grant pardon to (our, your, the) son and our daughters.
22. Propter adulēscentiam, fīliī meī, mala vītae nōn vidēbātis.
22. Because of (your) youth, my sons, you would not (did not see) see the evils of life.
23. Amābō tē, cūrā fīliam meam.
23. Please, take care of my daughter.
24. Vita hūmāna est supplicium.
24. Human life is punishment.
25. Satisne sānus es?
25. Are you healthy enough?
26a. Sī quandō satis pecūniae habēbō
26a. If ever I (will) have enough (of) money,
26b. tum mē cōnsiliō et philosophiae dabō.
26b. then I will give myself to wisdom and to philosophy.
27. Semper glōria et fāma tua manēbunt.
27. Your glory and (your) reputation will remain always.
28. Vir bonus et perītus aspera verba poētārum culpābit.
28. A good and skillful man will censure the rough words of poets.
29x. The very short introduction to elegaic couplets: one line of dactylic hexameter, the meter of epic poetry, i.e. six dactyls (-úuúu) or spondees (- -), followed by a line of dactylic pentameter, i.e. five dactyls or spondees (with one of the spondees divided into two). The basic scheme is as follows:
_ _ _ _ _
- ∪ ∪ │- ∪ ∪ │ - // ∪ / ∪ │ - ∪ ∪ │ - ∪ ∪ │ - x
- ∪ ∪ - ∪ ∪ - // - ∪ ∪ - ∪ ∪ -
The first four feet of the hexameter line, and the first two feet of the pentameter line, can be either dactyls or spondees. The fifth and sixth feet of the hexameter line are always going to be - uu | - x; the last syllable can be either long or short (anceps) and you don't have to decide.
continued on "answer" card.
the elegaic couplet, continued.
The hexameter line (the first, longer, line) almost always has a break (called a caesura), between words in the third foot. By far the most common place for this break is after the first beat (whether of dactyl or spondee). This is called a strong caesura, e.g.
Nōn cēnat sin(e) aprō // noster, Tite, Caecili _ anus
- - │- ∪ ∪ │ - // - │ - ∪ ∪ │ - ∪∪│ - x
The first half of the pentameter line is exactly the same as the first half of a hexameter line with a strong caesura, thus:
- ∪ ∪ - ∪ ∪ -
The second half is always two dactyls plus one long syllable
- ∪ ∪ - ∪ ∪ -
The a of cenat, and the o and e of noster, are long by position because it they are followed by two consonants.
The e of sine is elided into the a of apro; the a remains short, because certain combinations of consonants (liquids + mutes) do not lengthen a preceding short syllable.
29a. read aloud, in meter:
Nōn cēnat sĭn(e) ăprō
NOAN CAYNAT sin aprO
29b. read aloud, in meter:
noster, Tĭtĕ, Caecĭlĭānŭs:
NOHSTER Tĭtĕ CAEcĭlĭAHnŭs
29c. read aloud, in meter:
Note that double consonants ALWAYS lengthen a preceding short syllable; if you actually try to pronounce both consonants, instead of treating them as the sonically the same as a single one (as English speakers tend to do) you will find an easy key to the sound of Latin.
39d. Read aloud, in meter:
39d. CAEcĭlĭAHnŭs hăbEt!
39e translate: Nōn cēnat sine aprō noster, Tite, Caecilianus
39e. Our (friend) Caecilianus does not dine without a boar, Titus
39f. translate: bellum convīvam Caeciliānus habet.
39f. Caecilianus has a lovely guest.
39g. read aloud and translate:
Nōn cēnat sine aprō noster, Tite, Caecilianus
bellum convīvam Caeciliānus habet.
Caecilianus does not dine without a boar, Titus
Caecilianus has a lovely guest.
40. “Exercitus noster est magnus,” Persicus inquit,
40. A Persian says, “Our army is large...
41. “et propter numerum sagittārum nostrārum caelum nōn vidēbitis!”
41. “and because of the number of our arrows you (pl.) will not see the sky!”
42. Tum Lacedaemonius respondet:
42. Then a Spartan replies:
43. “In umbrā, igitur, pugnābimus!”
43. “Therefore we will fight in the shade!”
44. Et Leōnidās, rēx Lacedaemoniōrum, exclāmat:
44. And Leonidas, the king of the Spartans, shouts ...
45. Pugnāte cum animīs, Lacedaemoniī;
45. “Fight with (high) spirits, Spartans;
46. hodiē apud īnferōs fortasse cēnābimus!”
46. today perhaps we will dine among the dead.”