9.12 Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > 9.12 Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.12 Pharmacology Deck (21)
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1

Drugs must be eliminated from the body to: (2)

- terminate their effect
- prevent excessive accumulation of the drug

2

chemically altering the original compound so that the drug is no longer active

biotransformation

3

time frame for biotransformation

usually done within minutes or hours

4

What does biotransformation result in (product)?

metabolite

5

Metabolites are

inactive or greatly reduced form of a drug

6

Where are metabolites stored?

- fat
- bones
- muscles
- etc.

7

Can the active drug be excreted?

- yes, but generally, this process is too slow
- some compounds would stay in the body for several weeks

8

Primary location for drug metabolism

liver

9

In addition to the liver, where else does drug metabolism occur?

- lungs
- kidneys
- GI epithelium
- skin

10

lungs excrete:

aerosols, gas

11

Prolonged use of certain drugs “induces” the body to adjust and enzymatically destroy the drug more rapidly than expected. How might this happen?

- increasing the number of degrading enzymes
- destroying fewer enzymes

12

What may also cause enzyme induction?

- ETOH
- cigarette smoke
- herbal products
- environmental toxins

13

tolerance

need for increased drug dosages to maintain safe effect

14

Primary site for drug excretion

kidney

15

What are the mechanisms by which the kidney excretes drugs?

- tubular secretion
- glomerular filtration

16

Aside from the kidney, what are other sites of drug excretion?

- lungs (volatile drugs)
- GI tract
- sweat
- saliva
- breast milk

17

clearance

- organ and tissue ability to eliminate a drug
- can be systemic or specific to organ/tissue

18

Clearance includes excretion and elimination through _____

biotransformation

19

half-life

time required for 50% of the remaining drug to be eliminated from the body

20

Tylenol has a half-life of

2 hours (assuming normal fun)

21

half-life is a function of both

- clearance
- volume of distribution

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