Screening 5 Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > Screening 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Screening 5 Deck (37):
1

Leukocyte disorders are recognized as the body's reaction to

- disease
- foreign invaders

2

What are the two leukocyte disorders we discussed?

- leukocytosis
- leukopenia

3

leukocytosis =

increased neutrophils

4

leukopenia =

too few leukocytes

5

Too few leukocytes (leukopenia) is related to

- bone marrow failure
- never a beneficial condition

6

s/s of leukocytosis

- fever
- sx of localized or systemic infection
- inflammation
- tissue trauma

7

s/s of leukopenia

- sore throat
- cough
- high fever/chills
- ulcerations
- persistent infections
- frequent/painful urination

8

When is leukopenia commonly seen?

- following chemotherapy
- consider nadir

9

What is the nadir?

WBC count is at lowest level as a result of cancer tx

10

Important considerations for a pt at a nadir

If we know they will reach the nadir, must remember that they are more susceptible to infections during this time

11

Leukopenia: When does the nadir generally occur after cancer tx?

Usually between 7-14 days

12

What are the platelet disorders we discussed?

- thrombocytosis
- thrombocytopenia

13

Thrombocytosis is an increase in

platelet count

14

Why/when does thrombocytosis usually occur?

usually compensatory and temporary after surgery

15

What factors can influence platelet count?

- diet
- exercise
- liver disease
- radiation
- chemotherapy

16

What are two nutritional factors that influence platelet count?

- lecithin
- vitamin K

17

Lecithin (prevents/promotes) coagulation

prevents

18

Vitamin K (prevents/promotes) coagulation

promotes

19

How does exercise impact coagulation?

helps destroy clots

20

clinical s/s of thrombocytosis

- easy bruising
- splenomegaly
- thrombosis

21

Why does splenomegaly occur with thrombocytosis?

It becomes enlarged because it has to work much harder

22

What is thrombocytopenia?

decreased platelet count

23

What can thrombocytopenia result from?

decreased or defective platelet production

24

What causes thrombocytopenia?

- bone marrow failure
- leukemia
- medications

25

Which medications can cause thrombocytopenia?

- NSAIDs
- methotrexate
- gold
- coumadin

26

clinical s/s of thrombocytopenia

- bleeding after minor trauma
- spontaneous bleeding
- gingival bleeding

27

Where might you see idiopathic thrombocytopenia?

children

28

PT must be on alert for obvious sx of thrombocytopenia: Why?

- exercise that involves straining could precipitate a hemorrhage
- esp. of eyes or brain

29

undiagnosed clients with sx of thrombocytopenia

need immediate physician referral

30

Why is COX so important for platelets?

COX is an enzyme needed for thromboxane A2

»»» platelet aggregation and arterial smooth muscle constrictor «««

31

These two drugs activate platelet COX

- Aspirin (ASA)
- NSAIDs

32

A single dose of this can suppress normal platelet aggregation for 48 hours up to a week

ASA

33

Why is ASA problematic for platelet aggregation?

- irreversibly inhibits COX
- platelets are inactivated for the rest of their lifespan

34

How long do platelets live?

about 8 days

34

NSAIDs effects on COX are ________

reversible

36

Effects of NSAIDs on platelets

milder than ASA
- bruising
- skin bleeding

37

platelets and NSAIDs: pre-op implications

safest to d/c NSAIDs preop, even though effects are milder

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