Flashcards in Screening 5 Deck (37):
Leukocyte disorders are recognized as the body's reaction to
- foreign invaders
What are the two leukocyte disorders we discussed?
too few leukocytes
Too few leukocytes (leukopenia) is related to
- bone marrow failure
- never a beneficial condition
s/s of leukocytosis
- sx of localized or systemic infection
- tissue trauma
s/s of leukopenia
- sore throat
- high fever/chills
- persistent infections
- frequent/painful urination
When is leukopenia commonly seen?
- following chemotherapy
- consider nadir
What is the nadir?
WBC count is at lowest level as a result of cancer tx
Important considerations for a pt at a nadir
If we know they will reach the nadir, must remember that they are more susceptible to infections during this time
Leukopenia: When does the nadir generally occur after cancer tx?
Usually between 7-14 days
What are the platelet disorders we discussed?
Thrombocytosis is an increase in
Why/when does thrombocytosis usually occur?
usually compensatory and temporary after surgery
What factors can influence platelet count?
- liver disease
What are two nutritional factors that influence platelet count?
- vitamin K
Lecithin (prevents/promotes) coagulation
Vitamin K (prevents/promotes) coagulation
How does exercise impact coagulation?
helps destroy clots
clinical s/s of thrombocytosis
- easy bruising
Why does splenomegaly occur with thrombocytosis?
It becomes enlarged because it has to work much harder
What is thrombocytopenia?
decreased platelet count
What can thrombocytopenia result from?
decreased or defective platelet production
What causes thrombocytopenia?
- bone marrow failure
Which medications can cause thrombocytopenia?
clinical s/s of thrombocytopenia
- bleeding after minor trauma
- spontaneous bleeding
- gingival bleeding
Where might you see idiopathic thrombocytopenia?
PT must be on alert for obvious sx of thrombocytopenia: Why?
- exercise that involves straining could precipitate a hemorrhage
- esp. of eyes or brain
undiagnosed clients with sx of thrombocytopenia
need immediate physician referral
Why is COX so important for platelets?
COX is an enzyme needed for thromboxane A2
»»» platelet aggregation and arterial smooth muscle constrictor «««
These two drugs activate platelet COX
- Aspirin (ASA)
A single dose of this can suppress normal platelet aggregation for 48 hours up to a week
Why is ASA problematic for platelet aggregation?
- irreversibly inhibits COX
- platelets are inactivated for the rest of their lifespan
How long do platelets live?
about 8 days
NSAIDs effects on COX are ________
Effects of NSAIDs on platelets
milder than ASA
- skin bleeding