Flashcards in Autoimmune Disorders: Overview and HIV/AIDS Deck (34)
When do autoimmune disorders occur?
when immune system fails to distinguish self from nonself
Autoimmune disorders misdirect the immune response against the body's own tissues by manufacturing:
autoantibodies directed against:
- own cellular components
- specific organs
Results of an autoimmune response
- May have systemic manifestations with varying levels of symptoms
- May be organ specific or generalized
Overview: what is AIDS?
contagious disease that destroys T cells
What causes AIDS?
progression of HIV
How is HIV spread?
- sexual contact
- drug paraphernalia shared by injection drug users
- transfusion of infected blood
- perinatal transmission
How many Americans have AIDS?
~ 1 million
¼ don't know they have it
What is used to dx HIV?
- fingerstick sample
- OraQuick Rapid HIV antibody test
How does the Fingerstick sample work?
- detects presence of antibodies to HIV-1
- Tells if the person has been exposed
OraQuick Rapid HIV antibody test
- almost 100% accurate
- ready in 20 minutes
- requires confirmation testing
- no cure
- life expectancy rising due to use of a combination of antiretroviral meds
What is the most common cause of death with HIV/AIDS?
opportunistic infections or cancers
Who is the most likely to die of AIDS?
Intravenous drug users
4x more likely to die of AIDS vs. people infected via sexual contact
What is the pathogenesis of AIDS?
1. HIV-1 infects t-cells and macrophages via cells in blood and mucosa
2. Travels to lymph nodes and spleen
3. Host immune response
4. Viral replication continues
5. host develops clinical symptoms
What happens once HIV infects lymph nodes and spleen?
- rapid replication leads to widespread seeding of lymphoid tissue
- spreads quickly once it reaches the lymph nodes
What happens with HIV when the host has an immune response?
- Controls viral overtake
- Person enters clinical latency
What happens once viral replication continues after the host immune response?
get gradual erosion of CD4+ cells
Why does the host develop clinical symptoms with HIV/AIDS?
occurs due to CD4+ decline
What is the problem with some of the early s/s of HIV?
They wouldn't necessarily clue you in early on
What are some of the early s/s of HIV/AIDS
- chronic diarrhea
- minor oral infections
- cough and SOB
- cutaneous changes
- vaginal candidiasis
What are some of the early cutaneous changes that occur with HIV/AIDS
- nail bed changes
- dry skin
What are some of the advanced s/s of HIV/AIDS
- Kaposi's sarcoma
- opportunistic diseases
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- poor wound healing
- distal symmetric polyneuropathy
When does Kaposi's sarcoma show up with HIV/AIDS?
Is Kaposi's sarcoma contagious?
Where does Kaposi's sarcoma occur generally?
What sorts of changes can happen with Kaposi's sarcoma?
- can change into nodules
- can get very large
What are some examples of the opportunistic diseases that can occur as a result of HIV/AIDS?
- herpes simplex virus
What are some signs that might indicate that opportunistic diseases are happening?
- easy bruising
- muscle atrophy/weakness
- back pain
- side effects of meds
What is HIV/AIDS induced dementia out similar to?
organic dementia (due to long term drug use)
What can happen from HIV neurologic disease?
- difficulty with concentration and memory
- personality changes
- motor dysfunction
- gradual weakness of extremities
- peripheral neuropathy
With HIV/AIDS patients, need protective barriers when handling:
- body fluids
- infectious fluids
What are the standard HIV precautions for healthcare workers?
- protective barriers
- wash areas thoroughly if contaminated
- prevent needle sticks
- Take precautions with open wounds or skin lesions
- Extra precautions with pregnant workers
- Take specific precautions if exposed
If a healthcare worker has an open wound or skin lesion, they should not do these until healed
- treat clients
- handle equipment