Alzheimer's Disease Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > Alzheimer's Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alzheimer's Disease Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

Alzheimer's is a ________ _________ disorder

Progressive neurodegenerative

2

How do we manage behavior for AD pts?

- Familiar environment
- surround with familiar and comforting objects
- orientation program to include consistency in caregivers
- structured activities
- routine and predictability in day

3

In AD, how does neuronal atrophy often manifest?

- get volume loss in cortex
- enlarge lateral ventricles

4

Neurofibrillary tangles =

cytoskeletal tau proteins that become hyperphosphorylated

5

Neurofibrillary tangles (tau proteins) are accumulated where?

intracellular environment

6

Amyloid plaques accumulate here

extracellular environment

7

What do neurofibrillary tangles and plaques result in?

- widespread inflammation and death of cholinergic cells in the limbic system
- i.e. hippocampal cholinergic neurons

8

AD causes the loss of

- memory
- executive function
- cognition
- intellectual functions

9

What is the biggest risk factor for AD?

age

10

Typical onset is (early/late)

late

11

Two types of AD

- sporadic form (later onset)
- familial AD (early onset)

12

Sporadic form of AD occurs when? Why?

- 70s
- not sure why

13

Familial AD

- much more aggressive than sporadic
- associated with specific gene mutations
- uncommon

14

What are some of the methodologies for AD behavioral management?

- keep pt in familiar environment with comforting objects
- orientation program, including keeping consistency with caregivers if possible
- structured activities
- routine and predictability in day

15

What is the AB hypothesis?

- mutations increase enzymatic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein
- crappy stuff sticks together
- as we age, we lose the ability to clear it effectively
- accumulated proteins gum up the works

16

What happens when abnormal proteins gum up the works?

Impedes communication between neurons

17

What happens to neurons that can't communicate?

they die

18

Where does the amyloid plaque accumulate?

OUTSIDE the neurons in the extracellular space

19

What is the amyloid precursor protein?

- housekeeper that contributes to normal neuronal function
- we don't really know what it does

20

Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein: normal vs. abnormal

- happens as we age anyway
- there's a normal and abnormal way
-crappy stuff likes to stick together

21

What helps clear out crap amyloid?

sleep ("flushes the toilet on your day")

22

Function of microtubules

- retrograde and anterograde transport (among many other functions)
- delivery of stuff from the axon terminal to the cell body and vice versa

23

Microtubules: How are they dynamic?

- constantly polymerizing and depolymerizing
- based on what the cell needs

24

What is the stabilizing protein for microtubules?

tau

25

What is the tau hypothesis?

- tau becomes hyperphosphorylated
- tau becomes polar
- polar and nonpolar molecules stick together
- tau clumps up

26

Tau accumulates _______ the neuron
AB accumulates _______ the neuron

inside
outside

27

Tau gets ______. AB gets ______.

tangles
plaques

Decks in 8501 Clin Med Class (102):