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Flashcards in Pharm 3 Deck (24)
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1

epilepsy =

Chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures

2

seizures =

Episodes of sudden, transient disturbances in cerebral excitation

3

neurons: epilepsy

hyperexcitable, “irritable” neurons

4

neurons: seizures

Neurons firing in rapidly synchronized bursts

5

Causes of epilepsy/seizures

VARIES WIDELY
- unknown
- congenital
- birth trauma
- anoxia
- genetic
- infection
- hypoglycemic
- injury

6

How much of the US population have epilepsy?

about 3%

7

Effectiveness of meds for seizures (%)

50% - meds effective
25% - meds have substantial control
25% - meds have inadequate control

8

What are the classifications of seizures?

- generalized
- partial or focal seizures
- unknown

9

Which seizure type was formerly called "grand mal" and "petit mal"?

generalized

10

What types of seizures are included in the "generalized" category?

- tonic-clonic
- absence

11

How much of the brain is involved with generalized seizures?

involves whole brain

12

Partial or focal seizures: brain involvement

- only involve a part of the brain
- can become generalized

13

What are unknown seizures?

Anything that doesn’t fit into the categories of generalized or focal/partial

14

What is status epilepticus?

Continuous seizure for 30 minutes or more

OR

successive seizures without regaining consciousness

15

What can status epilepticus be brought on by?

- Sudden withdrawal from anti-seizure meds
- cerebral infarct
- drug/alcohol withdrawal
- infection

16

What does status epilepticus require (immediate)

requires emergency tx
- maintain airway/O2
- Monitor BP/HR
- Assessing for injury, blood gases, toxicology, IV medications

17

What are the first drugs used for status epilepticus?

typically benzodiazepines

18

first drugs for status epilepticus: benzos are _____ acting

short

19

first drugs for status epilepticus: benzos may be used concurrently with or followed by _______ (2)

- phenytoin (Dilantin)
- fosphenytoin (Cerebyx)

20

If status epilepticus is not resolved after first tx method, what is the next course of action?

- phenobarbital (Solfoton)
- valproic acid (Depakene)

21

If status epilepticus is still not resolved after first and second tx attempt, wht must be done?

If still not resolved, general anesthetics given, then slow tapering over 12 hours

- midazolam (Versed)
- phenobarbital (Nembutal)
- propofol (Diprivan)

22

rationale for drug tx even though seizures are usually self-limiting

Uncontrolled recurrent seizures may cause further damage to injured neurons

23

How can seizures be potentially harmful to other healthy cells?

- Cascade of other harmful proteins and oxidative stress
- Structural and functional changes in neuronal pathways
- Impaired cerebral activity
- Susceptibility to other seizures

24

When can seizures be fatal?

if cardiac irregularities result in cardiac arrest

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