9.7 Pharmacology 5 Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > 9.7 Pharmacology 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.7 Pharmacology 5 Deck (32):
1

bioavailability

extent to which drug reaches systemic circulation

2

What does bioavailability depend on?

- route of administration
- drug's ability to cross membrane barriers

3

drug movement

- passive diffusion
- active transport
- facilitated diffusion
- endocytosis

4

Why does ionization state affect absorption?

pH of digestive system interacts with the drug

5

- excretion
- how quickly and easily it is to get rid of the drug

clearance rate

6

volume of distribution

people who weight more require larger amts of the medicine for it to work

7

factors affecting distribution of drugs in the body

- tissue permeability
- blood flow
- binding to plasma proteins
- binding to subcellular components
- volume of distribution

8

major tissue permeability concern

blood brain barrier

9

blood flow and distribution of drugs in the body

- drugs have higher access to well-perfused areas
- why foot wounds don't heal unless peripheral blood flow is adequate

10

Which drugs can reach a target to create a pharmacologic effect?

only unbound or "free" drugs

11

bound drugs

- drug remains bound to a protein and is sequestered in the vascular system
- doesn't produce a therapeutic response

12

binding to subcellular components

- drug is "trapped" by organelles within a cell
- can't be distributed to other target areas

13

example of subcellular binding

certain antidepressants and antipsychotics with relatively high pH are attracted to the acidic lysosome

14

volume of distribution: important considerations

- may be possible to increase dosage to achieve therapeutic effect
- only if TI permits

15

What tissues might drugs be stored in that could have adverse effects?

- adipose tissue
- bone
- muscle
- organs

16

most common site for drug storage - why?

- adipose tissue
- most drugs are lipid-soluble

17

How long do drugs stay in adipose tissue and why?

tends to stay a long time

- low metabolic rate
- poor blood perfusion

18

What can concentrate heavily in adipose tissue?

- anesthetics (barbiturates)
- inhaled anesthetics (halothane)

19

bone and drugs

- some drugs can bind to skeletal matrix
- tetracycline

20

What is a toxic substance that can bind to bone?

lead

21

How do drugs get stored in muscle?

binds to:

- proteins
- nucleoproteins
- phospholipids

22

example of drug that gets stored in muscle

antimalarial: quinacrine

23

most common organs for drug storage

- liver
- kidneys

24

What drugs are commonly stored in the liver and kidneys?

antimicrobials
- gentamycin
- streptomycin

25

Problems with drug storage in tissue

- can damage, even in therapeutic doses
- can prevent medicine from reaching target tissue
- can redistribute the drug unpredictably

26

What are ways that are used to combat drug storage problems?

- controlled-release preparations
- implanted
- targeting drug to specific cell or tissue

27

benefit to controlled-release preparations

- prevents large fluctuations in plasma
- sustained levels

28

controlled-release preps are useful for these types of meds

- cardiovascular (beta and calcium channel blockers)
- narcotics
- anti-Parkinson drugs

29

How do implanted drugs work?

- small, measured dose on a programmed schedule into a specific body part
- epidural or subarachnoid

30

examples of implanted drugs

- spasticity: baclofen or lioresal
- insulin pump into fatty tissue

31

How can a drug be targeted to specific cells or tissues?

- use of a "prodrug" or inactive form
- converts to active form when specific enzymes or biochemical properties of the target tissue recognize it

32

examples of drugs targeting specific cells or tissues

- fecal transplants
- nanotechnology that facilitate drug delivery

lots of research for chemotherapy

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