Flashcards in Hematologic Disorders 4 Deck (28)
What types of reactions can happen to blood and blood related products?
- Febrile non-hemolytic reaction
- Transfusion-related acute lung injury
- Adult hemolytic transfusion reaction
- Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction
- Allergic reaction to donated plasma
- Septic reactions
- Circulatory overload
What is the most common reaction to blood and blood products?
Febrile non-hemolytic reaction
less than 1% RB and 30# platelet transfusions
What is a febrile non-hemolytic rxn?
Reaction of donor cytokines to antibodies of recipient
What is done if there is a febrile non-hemolytic reaction?
- Stop the transfusion
- administer antipyretics or corticosteroids
Febrile non-hemolytic reaction: timeframe
Prevalence of transfusion-related acute lung injury
1 in 2000 transfusions
Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the most common cause of
transfusion-related death (5% mortality rate)
What causes transfusion-related acute lung injury?
antibodies in donor plasma directed against recipient neutrophil antigens
When antibodies of donor plasma are directed against recipient neutrophil antigens, this results in:
inflammation after ~ 6 hours
sx of transfusion-related acute lung injury
Ranges from mild SOB to adult respiratory distress syndrome
prevalence of adult hemolytic transfusion rxn
1 in 25,000
Though adult hemolytic transfusion rxn is less common than some other conditions, it is most _____
most feared due to high mortality rate
What causes adult hemolytic transfusion rxn?
- ABO incompatibility
- wrong blood givem
Adult hemolytic transfusion rxn can be fatal or result in:
- disseminated intravascular coagulation
- renal failure
- severe hypotension
When does a delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn occur?
5-10 days after transfusion
What is the reason behind a delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn?
Donated erythrocytes quickly removed by recipients alloantibodies
sx of delayed hemolyric transfusion rxn
- often asymptomatic
- just no boost from transfusion
allergic reactions to donated plasma: What is it and who commonly gets it?
- variable allergic rxns
- often occurs in pts who have receive multiple transfusions
treatment for allergic rxns to donated plasma
- 1 in 20,000-50,000
- true cases are rare
What is anaphylaxis usually caused by with blood products?
usually cause by:
- IgA deficiency
- anti-IgA antibodies
anaphylaxis: sx timing and severity
Typically, the earlier sx occur, the more severe the rxn
How is anaphylaxis treated?
treated as shock protocol
Septic reactions with blood transfusions/products: causes
bacterial contamination of blood products
bacterial contamination of blood products is a source of
- Hep B
- Hep C
Septic rxns with blood products: prevalence
rare because of improved lab screening
How is sepsis treated?
according to source of sepsis