Hematologic Disorders 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematologic Disorders 4 Deck (28)
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1

What types of reactions can happen to blood and blood related products?

- Febrile non-hemolytic reaction
- Transfusion-related acute lung injury
- Adult hemolytic transfusion reaction
- Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction
- Allergic reaction to donated plasma
- Anaphylaxis
- Septic reactions
- Circulatory overload

2

What is the most common reaction to blood and blood products?

Febrile non-hemolytic reaction

less than 1% RB and 30# platelet transfusions

3

What is a febrile non-hemolytic rxn?

Reaction of donor cytokines to antibodies of recipient

4

What is done if there is a febrile non-hemolytic reaction?

- Stop the transfusion
- administer antipyretics or corticosteroids

5

Febrile non-hemolytic reaction: timeframe

usually transient

6

Prevalence of transfusion-related acute lung injury

1 in 2000 transfusions

7

Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the most common cause of

transfusion-related death (5% mortality rate)

8

What causes transfusion-related acute lung injury?

antibodies in donor plasma directed against recipient neutrophil antigens

9

When antibodies of donor plasma are directed against recipient neutrophil antigens, this results in:

inflammation after ~ 6 hours

10

sx of transfusion-related acute lung injury

Ranges from mild SOB to adult respiratory distress syndrome

11

prevalence of adult hemolytic transfusion rxn

1 in 25,000

12

Though adult hemolytic transfusion rxn is less common than some other conditions, it is most _____

most feared due to high mortality rate

13

What causes adult hemolytic transfusion rxn?

- ABO incompatibility
- wrong blood givem

14

Adult hemolytic transfusion rxn can be fatal or result in:

- disseminated intravascular coagulation
- renal failure
- severe hypotension

15

When does a delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn occur?

5-10 days after transfusion

16

What is the reason behind a delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn?

Donated erythrocytes quickly removed by recipients alloantibodies

17

sx of delayed hemolyric transfusion rxn

- often asymptomatic
- just no boost from transfusion

18

allergic reactions to donated plasma: What is it and who commonly gets it?

- variable allergic rxns
- often occurs in pts who have receive multiple transfusions

19

treatment for allergic rxns to donated plasma

pre-treated by:
- antihistamines
- corticosteroids

20

anaphylaxis: prevalence

- 1 in 20,000-50,000
- true cases are rare

21

What is anaphylaxis usually caused by with blood products?

usually cause by:
- IgA deficiency
- anti-IgA antibodies

22

anaphylaxis: sx timing and severity

Typically, the earlier sx occur, the more severe the rxn

23

How is anaphylaxis treated?

treated as shock protocol

24

Septic reactions with blood transfusions/products: causes

bacterial contamination of blood products

25

bacterial contamination of blood products is a source of

- Hep B
- Hep C

26

Septic rxns with blood products: prevalence

rare because of improved lab screening

27

How is sepsis treated?

according to source of sepsis

28

sx of circulatory overload (blood transfusions)

- SOB
- HA
- seizures

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