9.7 Pharmacology 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.7 Pharmacology 4 Deck (38)
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1

routes of administration: categories

- enteral (alimentary canal)
- parenteral (nonalimentary)

2

first-pass effect

a significant amount of the drug is metabolized and destroyed prior to reaching the site of action

3

Drug is transported to the liver via

portal vein

4

Dosage of an oral drug and first-pass effect

must be strong enough to survive hepatic degradation

5

Reasons why some drugs can't be given orally

- first-pass effect
- unpredictable rate of absorption into the bloodstream

6

What are the modes of enteral administration?

- sublingual
- buccal
- rectal

7

sublingual

under the tongue

8

buccal

between cheek and gum

9

How do sublingual and buccal drugs enter the bloodstream?

- mouth venous drainage system
- goes to superior vena cava and heart

NO FIRST PASS

10

What are sublingual and buccal drugs good for?

- fast-acting drugs like nitroglycerine
- must be able to be absorbed through oral mucosa and into venous drainage

11

benefit to rectal administration

used when oral isn't possible, such as with anti-vomiting or hemmorhoids

12

drawback to rectal administration

many are absorbed poorly through rectal mucosa

13

Which drugs are not usually subject to first-pass effect?

parenteral

14

methods of parenteral administration

- inhalation
- injection
- IV
- intra-arterial
- subcutaneous
- intramuscular
- intrathecal
- topical
- transdermal

15

drawbacks to inhalation drugs

- may irritate alveoli or nasal passages
- can get trapped by cilia and mucus

16

What types of drugs are often inhaled?

- anesthetics
- specific pulmonary treatments
- nonlipid-soluble agents
- DNA

17

example of larger nonlipid-soluble agents that are inhaled

- peptides
- small proteins (insulin)

18

Drugs can be introduced systemically or locally via

injection

19

benefit of an IV bolus

- accurate, known quantity of drug over short period
- peak level occurs almost instantly

20

IV infusion delivered via

indwelling IV cannula

21

IV infusion allow for

prolonged, steady infusion

22

IV infusions prevent

large plasma fluctuation of a bolus

23

function of intra-arterial drug delivery

puts large amts of drug into specific target site

24

intra-arterial deliver is usually reserved for

- chemotherapy
- radiopaque dyes for dx procedures

25

subcutaneous drug delivery for

- local procedures (lidocaine, insulin)
- hormonal implants (slow release, ex. birth control)

26

What adverse effect may subcutaneous drug delivery cause?

local tissue irritation

27

intramuscular administration used for

- local tx (Botox)
- relatively steady, prolonged release into systemic circulation

28

effect of intramuscular administration (speed)

- relatively rapid effect
- doesn't cause the sudden increase in plasma levels

29

What is intrathecal administration?

meds released in a sheath, such as spinal subarachnoid space

30

What might be used to bypass the BBB and reach the CNS?

- narcotic analgesics & anesthetics
- can be delivered adjacent to SC

**antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs

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