9.7 Pharmacology 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.7 Pharmacology 4 Deck (38)
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1

routes of administration: categories

- enteral (alimentary canal)
- parenteral (nonalimentary)

2

first-pass effect

a significant amount of the drug is metabolized and destroyed prior to reaching the site of action

3

Drug is transported to the liver via

portal vein

4

Dosage of an oral drug and first-pass effect

must be strong enough to survive hepatic degradation

5

Reasons why some drugs can't be given orally

- first-pass effect
- unpredictable rate of absorption into the bloodstream

6

What are the modes of enteral administration?

- sublingual
- buccal
- rectal

7

sublingual

under the tongue

8

buccal

between cheek and gum

9

How do sublingual and buccal drugs enter the bloodstream?

- mouth venous drainage system
- goes to superior vena cava and heart

NO FIRST PASS

10

What are sublingual and buccal drugs good for?

- fast-acting drugs like nitroglycerine
- must be able to be absorbed through oral mucosa and into venous drainage

11

benefit to rectal administration

used when oral isn't possible, such as with anti-vomiting or hemmorhoids

12

drawback to rectal administration

many are absorbed poorly through rectal mucosa

13

Which drugs are not usually subject to first-pass effect?

parenteral

14

methods of parenteral administration

- inhalation
- injection
- IV
- intra-arterial
- subcutaneous
- intramuscular
- intrathecal
- topical
- transdermal

15

drawbacks to inhalation drugs

- may irritate alveoli or nasal passages
- can get trapped by cilia and mucus

16

What types of drugs are often inhaled?

- anesthetics
- specific pulmonary treatments
- nonlipid-soluble agents
- DNA

17

example of larger nonlipid-soluble agents that are inhaled

- peptides
- small proteins (insulin)

18

Drugs can be introduced systemically or locally via

injection

19

benefit of an IV bolus

- accurate, known quantity of drug over short period
- peak level occurs almost instantly

20

IV infusion delivered via

indwelling IV cannula

21

IV infusion allow for

prolonged, steady infusion

22

IV infusions prevent

large plasma fluctuation of a bolus

23

function of intra-arterial drug delivery

puts large amts of drug into specific target site

24

intra-arterial deliver is usually reserved for

- chemotherapy
- radiopaque dyes for dx procedures

25

subcutaneous drug delivery for

- local procedures (lidocaine, insulin)
- hormonal implants (slow release, ex. birth control)

26

What adverse effect may subcutaneous drug delivery cause?

local tissue irritation

27

intramuscular administration used for

- local tx (Botox)
- relatively steady, prolonged release into systemic circulation

28

effect of intramuscular administration (speed)

- relatively rapid effect
- doesn't cause the sudden increase in plasma levels

29

What is intrathecal administration?

meds released in a sheath, such as spinal subarachnoid space

30

What might be used to bypass the BBB and reach the CNS?

- narcotic analgesics & anesthetics
- can be delivered adjacent to SC

**antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs

31

topical medications absorbed through

- skin
- mucous membranes

32

What are topical meds usually used for?

- skin
- absorption through systemic circulation is relatively small

33

transdermal meds must be able to

- penetrate the skin
- not be degraded by drug-metabolizing enzymes in the skin

34

What are transdermal meds usually mixed with?

oily or other soluble base

usually in patch form

35

Benefit to transdermal meds

slow, controlled release at a relatively constant level for prolonged periods of time

36

ionto and phonophoresis delivers meds to

- subcutaneous muscle
- tendon
- bursa

37

common transdermal meds

- scopolamine
- nicotine
- hormonal agents
- lidocaine
- fentanyl

38

nasal sprays are considered

topical agents

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