9.29 Immunity 3 Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > 9.29 Immunity 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.29 Immunity 3 Deck (26):
1

What is an antigen?

- foreign substance that enters the body
- bacteria, virus, parasite, etc.

2

What is an epitope?

a subunit of an antigen

- immunologically active site on the antigen that binds to a t-cell receptor
- creates an antigen response with antibody

3

How do immune cells recognize self?

- cell markers are unique to individual antigen
- cell markers determine which antigen to respond to and how strong
- cell markers allow communication between immune cells

4

What are antigens?

Y-shaped molecules with 2 antigen binding sites

5

Antibodies are produced by:

B cells

6

Antibodies consist of

2 identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains

7

The H chain includes

4-5 immunoglobulin domains

8

L chains are bound to

H chains

9

What are the other regions that do not contain antigen binding sites known as?

constant regions

10

What are immunoglobulins?

globulins with antibody activity

11

major functions of immunoglobulins?

- directly attack antigens by destroying and neutralizing
- activate complement system
- activate anaphylaxis by releasing histamines
- stimulate antibody-mediated hypersensitivity

12

Generation of diversity occurs through _______, resulting in _______ different types of immunoglobulins.

- gene rearrangement
- 10^9 to 10^11

13

MHC =

major histocompatibility complex

14

MHCs are how the body does this:

seeks out invaders and initiate a response

15

What is an MHC?

- a group of protein markers found on cell membranes
- promotes the immune system to recognize its own cells and distinguish them from foreign pathogens

16

Types of MHCs

- Class I: endogenous/cytosolic
- Class II: exogenous/endocytic

17

Where are Class I MHCs found? What are they used for?

- found on membranes of almost all of our cells
- used to differentiate between healthy and infected cells?

18

Where are Class II MHCs found? What are they used for?

- found on specific immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and T cells
- help immune cells communicate with each other via the extracellular environment

19

T-cells recognize when:

something isn't supposed to be there

20

What are the categories of adaptive immune response?

- cell-mediated (T-cell immunity)
- humoral (B-cell immunity)

21

T cells and B cells both originate in

bone marrow

22

Cell mediated immunity (t-cell)

T lymphocytes travel from bone marrow to thymus to learn how to differentiate self from non-self

23

humoral immunity (b-cell)

B lymphocytes produce 5 Ig molecules

24

What are the Ig molecules produced by B lymphocytes?

- IgG
- IgM
- IgA
- IgD
- IgE

25

(T-cell/B-cell) immunity produces the most rapid immune response

B cell (humoral)

26

How does T/B cell immunity work? What is the significance of this?

works together: failure of one can alter the effectiveness of the other

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