Flashcards in 9.29 Immunity 2 Deck (43)
What are external defenses associated with innate immunity?
- physical barriers
- chemical barriers
innate immunity: examples of physical barriers
innate immunity: examples of chemical barriers
- nasal secretions
- ear wax
- nasal hair
- stomach acid
- other bodily secretions
internal defenses are classified as:
- soluble factors
- cellular components
What are the soluble factors of internal immunity?
- complement system
- acute phase proteins
What are the cellular components of internal immunity?
- NK cells
How do the internal defenses of innate immunity recognize pathogens?
recognize repeating patterns of molecular structure common to certain pathogens (PAMP)
What are PAMPs?
PAMPs are limited in
readily ingest and kill pathogens to protect the body against infection
What are the primary phagocytes of internal defenses?
Where do phagocytes come from?
emigrate from the blood into tissues where infection is located
Each phagocyte has a specific _______
What are the phagocytic leukocytes in INNATE immunity?
Which of the leukocytes are not associated with innate immunity?
Why are lymphocytes not associated with innate immunity?
They are the B and T cells associated with adaptive immunity
Where are neutrophils produced?
When do neutrophils die?
- after phagocytosis
- accumulation of dead debris forms pus
Neutrophils are the predominant ____ in peripheral blood and increase dramatically with ____ and _____
Monocytes mature into
What do monocytes do?
- filter debris produced by neutrophils
- kill damaged bacteria that was too large for the neutrophils
Where are eosinophils produced?
How do eosinophils kill organisms?
release contents of granules to kill organisms
Where are eosinophils commonly seen?
- allergic responses
- parasitic infections
the "-phils" are all called
granulocytes (they have a granular appearance)
Basophils are found here
Basophils contain ____ and work with _______
- mast cells
Basophils have a major role in
The acute phase response occurs when high levels of these are produced
acute phase response: systemic effects
- blood vessel occlusion
- mobilization of energy from muscle and fat stores
What is produced during the acute phase response
proteins (i.e. fibrinogen, CRP, mannose binding)
What is the most important protein produced in the acute phase response?
C-reactive protein (CRP)
present in high numbers with a systemic inflammatory response
Where is CRP produced?
What is the complement system?
30 proteins that interact in a cascade and aggregate to damage the membranes of microbial cells
the complement system facilitates movement of leukocytes to the area via ____
How do the leukocytes make a pathogen vulnerable to phagocytosis?
- coats the surface
- formation of a cyst or tubercle walling off infection from the body
membrane attack complex
What does the MAC do?
- creates a pore in the cell of antigen to allow Na+ and fluid to enter
- leads to cell lysis
What class are NK cells?
large lymphocytes, but distinct from T and B cells
function of NK cells
kill cells infected with viruses and other pathogens as well as tumor cells
How do NK cells work?
express activating and inhibitory receptors on their surfaces that interact with ligands on the target cell
decide whether to detach and move on or stay and fight
What is the role of erythrocytes and platelets in the immune response?
clearance of immune complexes