9.29 Immunity 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.29 Immunity 2 Deck (43)
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1

What are external defenses associated with innate immunity?

- physical barriers
- chemical barriers

2

innate immunity: examples of physical barriers

- SKIN
- mucus
- cilia
- coughing
- sneezing
- peristalsis

3

innate immunity: examples of chemical barriers

- tears
- saliva
- nasal secretions
- ear wax
- nasal hair
- stomach acid
- other bodily secretions

4

internal defenses are classified as:

- soluble factors
- cellular components

5

What are the soluble factors of internal immunity?

- complement system
- cytokines
- chemokines
- acute phase proteins

6

What are the cellular components of internal immunity?

- neutrophils
- monocytes/macrophages
- NK cells

7

How do the internal defenses of innate immunity recognize pathogens?

recognize repeating patterns of molecular structure common to certain pathogens (PAMP)

8

What are PAMPs?

Pathogen
Associated
Molecular
Patterns

9

PAMPs are limited in

variability

10

readily ingest and kill pathogens to protect the body against infection

phagocytes

11

What are the primary phagocytes of internal defenses?

- neutrophils
- monocytes/macrophages

12

Where do phagocytes come from?

emigrate from the blood into tissues where infection is located

13

Each phagocyte has a specific _______

effector function

14

What are the phagocytic leukocytes in INNATE immunity?

- neutrophils
- monocytes/macrophages
- eosinophils
- basophils

15

Which of the leukocytes are not associated with innate immunity?

lymphocytes

16

Why are lymphocytes not associated with innate immunity?

They are the B and T cells associated with adaptive immunity

17

Where are neutrophils produced?

bone marrow

18

When do neutrophils die?

- after phagocytosis
- accumulation of dead debris forms pus

19

Neutrophils are the predominant ____ in peripheral blood and increase dramatically with ____ and _____

- WBC
- infection
- inflammation

20

Monocytes mature into

macrophages

21

What do monocytes do?

- filter debris produced by neutrophils
- kill damaged bacteria that was too large for the neutrophils

22

Where are eosinophils produced?

bone marrow

23

How do eosinophils kill organisms?

release contents of granules to kill organisms

24

Where are eosinophils commonly seen?

- allergic responses
- parasitic infections

25

the "-phils" are all called

granulocytes (they have a granular appearance)

26

Basophils are found here

stem cells

27

Basophils contain ____ and work with _______

- histamine
- mast cells

28

Basophils have a major role in

allergic responses

29

The acute phase response occurs when high levels of these are produced

pro-inflammatory cytokines

30

acute phase response: systemic effects

- fever
- blood vessel occlusion
- mobilization of energy from muscle and fat stores

31

What is produced during the acute phase response

proteins (i.e. fibrinogen, CRP, mannose binding)

32

What is the most important protein produced in the acute phase response?

C-reactive protein (CRP)

present in high numbers with a systemic inflammatory response

33

Where is CRP produced?

liver

34

What is the complement system?

30 proteins that interact in a cascade and aggregate to damage the membranes of microbial cells

35

the complement system facilitates movement of leukocytes to the area via ____

chemotaxis

36

How do the leukocytes make a pathogen vulnerable to phagocytosis?

- coats the surface
- formation of a cyst or tubercle walling off infection from the body

37

MAC =

membrane attack complex

38

What does the MAC do?

- creates a pore in the cell of antigen to allow Na+ and fluid to enter
- leads to cell lysis

39

What class are NK cells?

large lymphocytes, but distinct from T and B cells

40

function of NK cells

kill cells infected with viruses and other pathogens as well as tumor cells

41

How do NK cells work?

express activating and inhibitory receptors on their surfaces that interact with ligands on the target cell

decide whether to detach and move on or stay and fight

42

What is the role of erythrocytes and platelets in the immune response?

clearance of immune complexes

43

Erythrocytes and platelets interact with this system

complement system

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