9.21 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 8 Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > 9.21 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.21 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 8 Deck (32):
1

What are the chemical mediators of inflammation?

- histamine
- platelet-activating factor
- arachidonic acid derivatives
- cytokines
- blood coagulation, fibrinolytic, and complement systems

2

What are histamines?

mast cells circulating in the bloodstream

3

What is the function of the blood coagulation, fibrinolytic, and complement systems?

3 main blood systems that help in mediating inflammation

4

Mast cell synthesizes and stores this

histamine

5

What does histamine do?

- increases blood vessel permeability
- allows fluids and blood cells to flow into interstitial spaces
- potent vasodilator and bronchoconstrictor

6

histamine: time frame

- quick action
- lasts less than 30 mins

7

What does platelet-activating factor do?

- induces platelet activation and secretion
- activates smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and leukocytes
- strengthens activity of other inflammatory mediators

8

How do platelet-activating factors strengthen the activity of other inflammatory mediators?

by bringing the others in to the area

9

How many pathways does arachidonic acid follow?

2

10

How does arachidonic acid go into the 2 pathways

- split off from damaged cell's membrane phospholipids
- metabolized into one of two pathways

11

What are the arachidonic acid pathways?

- cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway
- lipooxygenase pathway

12

Most NSAIDs control via this pathway

COX pathway

13

COX pathway »

- prostaglandins
- thromboxanes

14

prostaglandins involved in

- fever and pain responses
- vascular permeability
- neutrophil chemotaxis

15

thromboxanes involved in

- vasomotor tone
- platelet aggregation

16

lipooxygenase pathway »

leukotrienes

**respiratory response

17

leukotrienes involved in

- bronchoconstriction
- seen in later stages of inflammation

18

How do leukotrienes behave with respect to bronchoconstriction?

- similar to histamine
- slower, longer response
- later stages of inflammation only

19

What happens if we shut things down above arachidonic acid?

don't get COX pathway or lipooxygenase pathway responses

20

What is a med that shuts down arachidonic acid pathways?

steroids

21

If the body perceives an appropriate level of circulating steroids, what happens?

- won't produce more
- get a crash

22

If the body perceives an appropriate level of circulating steroids, what happens?

- won't produce more
- get a crash

23

Cytokines are produced by

leukocytes

24

examples of cytokine types

- IL-1
- interleukins
- tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

25

IL-1 and interleukins have these types of actions

local and systemic inflammatory actions

- metabolic
- hemodynamic
- hematologic

26

tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is involved with these processes

- cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis
- lipid metabolism
- coagulation

- can induce many IL-1 factors except activation of lymphocytes

27

What are the 3 systems of clotting and bleeding?

- blood coagulation
- fibrinolytic
- complement

28

coagulation system

assembles and dissembles clots

29

fibrinolytic system

dissolves clots

30

complement system

inflammatory mediators

31

Where does phagocytosis fit in?

included with the clotting/bleeding systems because all chemical mediators attract phagocytic cells for removal of dead tissue/microorganisms as part of tissue healing

32

Why don't you want continued clotting?

blood vessel will become occluded

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