9.19 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 1 Flashcards Preview

8501 Clin Med > 9.19 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.19 Injury, Inflammation, Healing 1 Deck (44):
1

The overall health of the cells impacts its ability to

- resist microorganisms
- recover from injury

2

Age-associated deterioration of cells leads to

tissue/organ deficiencies

3

Aging cells are less resistant to

- injury
- disease

4

Pathologic changes associated with aging vary widely from person to person, but usually involve:

a lack of functional reserve due to tissue or organ atrophy

5

What are the three theories on cellular aging?

- free radical theory
- telomere aging clock theory
- wear and tear theory

6

free radical theory

- oxidative process damages DNA
- produces an excess of free radicals

7

telomere aging clock theory

molecular clock signals senescence

8

What is senescence?

cells entering a dividing state

9

What can telomere dysfunction potentially tell us?

could be used as a malignancy marker

10

What may act as antioxidants? Why is this important?

- diet, exercise, hormones
- enhance the ability to resist aging

11

implications of research on improving aerobic capacity on aging?

increase in mitochondrial capacity in skeletal and cardiac muscle

12

wear and tear theory

heart and brain (organs with less regenerative capacity), signs of aging occur with use over time

13

What are the mechanisms of cell injury?

- ischemia
- infection
- immune
- genetic
- nutritional factors
- physical factors
- mechanical factors
- chemical factors
- psychosocial

14

ischemia

blood flow insufficient to maintain metabolic function

15

ischemia can result in

necrosis

16

What is a danger with infection?

sepsis can occur

17

What is sepsis?

- microorganisms or toxins have reached the level that they have spread through the body
- In the bloodstream

18

mechanisms of cell injury: immune

- allergy
- autoimmune disorder

19

What are examples of immune contributing to cell injury?

- anaphylaxis
- type I diabetes

20

Type I diabetes: What is happening?

antigens produce T-lymphocytes to attack islet cells

21

mechanisms of cell injury: genetic

(3 separate mechanisms)

- chromosones
- proteins
- mutations

interact with environment

22

Examples of genetic mech of cell injury

- Down's syndrome
- sickle cell anemia
- diabetes (Type II greater than Type I)
- HTN

23

genetic considerations: proteins

single mutation in a gene causes an abn folding of a proteins

24

mechanisms of cell injury: nutritional factors

- malnutrition limits cell replication
- vitamin or mineral deficiencies

25

Kwashiorkor caused by

protein deficiency

26

Marasmus caused by

general calorie deficiency

27

mechanisms of cell injury: physical factors

- trauma
- temperature

i.e. brain injury, sunburn, frostbite

28

mechanisms of cell injury: mechanical factors

adaptation vs. injury

- repeated stress
- single high load stress

29

mechanisms of cell injury: repeated stress

load, rate, forces (torsion, shear)

- hypertrophy
- atrophy

30

Examples of repeated stress causing cell injury

chronic tendinosis

31

What about chronic tendinitis suggests that acute inflammation phase has passed?

anti-inflammatory mediators are present

32

single high load stresses

- bone fx
- tendon ruptures
- etc.

33

mechanisms of cell injury: chemical factors

toxic substances in/outside the body

34

How are free radicals formed?

- in the body
- byproduct of metabolism

35

positive free radicals

part of the immune system

36

negative free radicals

in excess, can cause cell injury, including heart disease, CVA, diabetes

37

What are negative free radicals caused by?

- excessive exercise
- UV light
- pollutants
- tobacco smoke

etc.

38

What do antioxidants do?

neutralize free radicals

39

some antioxidants

- vitamins
- minerals
- moderate exercise

40

Fear, tension, and anxiety can influence

individual thresholds for tissue adaptation and injury

41

There is a correlation between job satisfaction and

injury risk

42

FABQ

fear avoidance belief questionnaire

43

There is a relationship between FABQ and

pain

44

Mechanical/psychosocial factors have been identified in

acute and chronic pain responses

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