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Flashcards in Screening 4 Deck (29)
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1

polycythemia aka

erythrocytosis

2

Polycythemia occurs when there are too many

RBCs

3

In polycythemia, increased concentration of hemoglobin leads to

- increased blood volume
- increased blood viscosity

4

Increased blood volume and viscosity limits blood's ability to

flow easily

5

What are the two forms of polycythemia?

- primary
- secondary

6

primary polycythemia aka

polycythemia vera

7

What is primary polycythemia?

rare bone marrow neoplasm

8

Primary polycythemia and RBC/WBC

- decreased RBC production
- increased # of RBCs
- usu causes excess WBC and platelet production

9

What happens to blood in the capillaries with polycythemia and what outward sign does this produce?

- viscous blood plugs capillaries
- get "hot bath sign"

10

Secondary polycythemia results from

decreased oxygen to the tissues

11

Secondary polycythemia may be due to (environmental)

- living at high altitudes
- smoking
- radiation
- chronic heart/lung disorders

12

Initial s/s of polycythemia

- usually vague
- watch for increased BP and hematocrit levels

13

Why are BP and hematocrit levels increased with polycythemia?

due to increased blood viscosity

14

What are the 2 features of sickle cell anemia?

- hemolytic anemia
- vasoocclusion

15

What genetic mutation is seen in sickle cell anemia?

RBCs contain an abnormal hemoglobin S

16

What does abnormal hemoglobin S cause?

- aggregation into long beta chains
- alters shape of cell

17

When hemoglobin S is exposed to low concentrations of O2, what happens?

develops sickle appearance instead off a biconcave disc

18

In addition to the shape change seen with sickle cell anemia, what else happens to the RBC? What does this cause?

- RBCs are highly fragile
- leads to serious anemia

19

What type of disease is sickle cell anemia?

- inherited
- autosomal recessive

20

sickle cell anemia: autosomal recessive means

both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations

21

Sickle cell anemia is the most common ________

inherited blood disorder in the US

22

sickle cell anemia: African Americans

1 in 500

23

sickle cell anemia: Hispanic Americans

1 in 1000

24

manifestation of sickle cell anemia is characterized by

- a series of "crises/episodes" of acute manifestations of the disease
- range in severity

25

sickle cell anemia: recurrent episodes result in

progressive damage to most organs

26

What medical issues are frequent and severe with pts who have sickle cell anemia?

- CVAs
- cognitive impairment

27

The hot bath sign causes:

Intolerable itching

28

Clinical signs of polycythemia are usually vague initially: what are some common things that happen?

- Decreased mental acuity
- Blurred vision
- Headaches
- etc.

29

With polycythemia, what values should you monitor closely and why?

monitor BP and hematocrit because of increased blood viscosity

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