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Flashcards in Screening 3 Deck (30)
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1

What types of anemia did we discuss?

- blood loss anemia
- aplastic anemia
- megaloblastic anemia
- pernicious anemia
- anemia of inflammation
- sickle cell anemia

2

Blood loss anemia due to

Hemorrhage

3

How long does it take the body to replace the fluid portion of plasma?

1-3 days

4

What problem arises when the body replaces the fluid portion of plasma early on?

Leaves low concentration of RBCs

5

How long does it normally take for RBC concentration to return to normal?

3-6 weeks (if no additional bleeding)

6

Aplastic anemia occurs due to:

Bone marrow aplasia

7

What is bone marrow aplasia?

Lack of functioning bone marrow

8

What are the causes of aplastic anemia?

- gamma ray radiation
- chemotherapy
- excessive x-ray tx
- certain industrial chemicals
- drug sensitivities

9

What does the bone marrow produce with megaloblastic anemia?

Megaloblasts

10

What are megaloblasts?

RBCs that are:
- unusually large
- structurally abnormal
- immature (fragile membranes)

11

Megaloblastic anemia is related to these deficiencies

- B12
- folate
- nutritional deficiencies

12

B12, folate, and proper nutrition are important in the production of:

- hemoglobin
- erythrocytes

13

What is the problem with misshapen cells from megaloblastic anemia?

Rupture easily

14

Pernicious anemia is caused by a loss of

Intrinsic factor (IF)

15

Intrinsic factor (IF) if produced by these cells

Gastric cells

16

What is IF required for?

B12 absorption in small intestine

17

With pernicious anemia, lack of IF production is caused by:

antibody formation against gastric cells

18

Pernicious anemia: What does antibody formation against gastric cells result in?

- atrophy
- loss of IF production

19

With pernicious anemia, when does a decrease in RBCs occur?

When the intestines can't properly absorb B12

20

Pernicious anemia results in these types of sx

CNS

21

CNS sx seen in pernicious anemia

- HA
- drowsiness
- dizziness
- slow mental processes
- polyneuropathies

22

Anemia of inflammation aka

Anemia of chronic disease

23

Anemia of inflammation (chronic disease) is characterized by these 3 things

- modest reduction in hemoglobin (7-12 g/dL)
- presence of inflammation
- decreased responsiveness to bone marrow to erythropoietin

24

How does chronic illness cause anemia?

- chronic illness signals the immune system to release a steady supply of inflammatory proteins
- interferes with production of RBCs

25

Anemia of inflammation (chronic disease) is common in this setting

Therapy

26

Remember these for prescribing exercise programs for anemia pts

- review with attending physician
- think about pacing and training that evenly distributes workload over time
- progress slowly and monitor vitals
- know underlying cause

27

For a sedentary person, decreased activity can mask _______. Be sure to observe carefully and note mental status changes.

Exercise intolerance

28

It is important for the PT to know the underlying cause of anemia. It would be helpful to do these

- ID red flag sx
- ID direct course of action

29

Which two types of anemia are bone marrow related?

- aplastic
- megaloblastic

30

Why does pernicious anemia cause CNS sx?

Because B12 directly related to myelination!

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