Cardiovascular Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Anatomy Deck (32):
1

What is the base of the heart?

where the right ventricle meets the pulmonary artery
-at the R and L 2nd interspaces

2

what is the apex of the heart?

the tapered tip of the left ventricle
(posterior to the RV)

3

what is the apical impulse?

also called PMI (point of maximal impulse)
found at 5th interspace lateral to the midsternal line

4

where is the inferior border of the heart?

below the junction of the sternum and the xiphoid process

5

what is the PMI over the left ventricle?

it is more muscular and produces more pressure

6

what is the posterior border of the heart?

the border of the left atrium

7

systole

ventricular contraction

8

diastole

ventricular relaxation

9

atrial systole

atrial contraction

10

atrial diastole

atrial relaxaion

11

what is S1?

mitral and tricuspid valve closing
-you mostly hear mitral

12

should valve make a noise when it opens?

no!

13

what is S2?

aortic and pulmonic valve closing
-you mostly hear the aortic valve

14

what happens during systole?

ventricles start to contract
AV valves close = S1
semilunar valves open (can't hear)
atrial relaxation and filling
ventricular pressure falls (blood is leaving)
semilunar valves close = S2

15

what happens during diastole?

semilunar valves close = S2
AV valves open
ventricular relaxation and filling
atrial contraction
AV valves close = S1

16

what is cardiac output?

amount of blood ejected from each ventricle in 1 minute
CO = HR x SV

17

what is stroke volume?

amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat
-tested by the echocardiogram (gives a percentage of blood that comes out with each beat)

18

what is the average CO?

60-80 mL

19

what happens when CO falls?

body is not getting appropriately oxygenated

20

preload

load that stretches the cardiac muscle prior to contraction
-the volume of blood in the R/L ventricle at the end of diastole (how much blood is in this space before it contracts)

21

afterload

vascular resistance against which the ventricle must contract
-resistance to which preload has to go against

22

what causes increased afterload?

HTN (vasoconstriction), atherosclerosis, aortic stenosis
-heart has to work harder to pump against small pipes

23

myocardial contractility

ability of the cardiac muscle when given a load to shorten

24

when does myocardial contractility increase?

sympathetic stimulation

25

when does myocardial contractility decrease?

decreased oxygen delivery to myocardium

26

sinoatrial node (SA node)

"pacemaker" sets up how fast the heart is going to beat
60-100 pulses per minute

27

atrioventricular node (AV node)

delayed briefly
40-60 pulses per minute

28

Bundle of His (AV Bundle)

interventricular bundle
20-40 bpm
(has a R and L branch)

29

what is the P wave

atrial depolarization (atrial contraction)

30

what is the QRS wave?

ventricular depolarization (ventrical contraction)

31

what is the T wave?

ventricular repolarization (ventricular relaxation)

32

what is the most important thing when you are dealing with CV complaint?

history

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