Flashcards in Neuro Assessment Deck (44):
when might tendon reflexes be heightened?
hyperreflexia, caused by CNS lesions
what is somatic pain?
classic pain felt with injury, typically on the periphery
what is visceral pain?
vague, not easy to localize, think abdominal organ
what is neuropathic pain?
burning, electrical pain due to specific disease of nerves
what is dyesthesia?
abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling of the skin
-diabetic peripheral neuropathy
what is paresthesia?
peculiar sensation without obvious stimulation
what is allodynia?
when a normally painless stimulus is now painful
what are common causes of syncope?
what is a resting tremor?
most prominent at rest, but decreases with activity
what is a postural tremor?
comes on when you maintain a posture
what is an intention tremor?
comes on when you go to do an action
-associated with cerebellar problems
what is chorea?
brief, rapid, jerky, but not repeated
what is dystonia?
twisting positions with trunk
-affect of medicines
what is athetosis?
twisting positions associated with distal extremities
what is a focal seizure?
specific part of one cerebral hemisphere is affected
-may be with or without impaired consciousness
what is a generalized seizure?
originates at some focal point and rapidly spread through cortical structures
what is a tonic-clonic seizure?
muscle contraction, then jerking (grand mal)
what is an absence seizure?
typically affects cognition and level of consciousness
what is a myoclonic seizure?
muscular jerking that is localized to certain muscle groups
what is an atonic seizure?
what are the levels of consciousness?
Alert ->lethargic ->obtunded -> stupor -> coma
what will an obtunded person do?
have to speak to loudly and may answer a few questions
what will a stuporous person do?
give you non-sensical mumbling
what is orientation x 4?
who, where, when, why
person, place, time, situation
what is delirium?
acute, short-term altered mental status
what are possible causes of delirium?
acute infection (high fever)
what is dementia?
long term altered mental status associated with progressive brain dz
what are possible causes of dementia?
what is aphonia/dysphonia?
abnormal quality of speech
-hoarseness, high or low pitch
what is dysarthria?
someone speaking with marbles in their mouth -saying the right thing, but the muscles that form the words are impaired
what are the types of aphasia?
Wernickes-understanding words and expressing with meaning
what are good recent memory questions?
what was the weather like this morning?
what are good remote memory questions?
what is your birthday?
who was the past president?
why would you use a proverb as part of the neuro assessment?
assess abstract thinking
when might you test CN I?
elderly pts who are losing weight and may have lost sense of smell
which facial muscles are innervated by trigeminal?
temporalis and masseter
what sensory input is facial nerve responsible for?
anterior 2/3 of tongue
what is bell's palsy?
peripheral cranial nerve VII problem
motor neurons in the brain that synapse with facial neurons that control lower face always do what?
cross at the level of the brain
a peripheral facial nerve lesion will cause what symptoms?
inability to close eye and mouth on same side (upper and lower sections)
a central facial nerve lesion will cause what symptoms?
lower section of face on one side (brain neurons that don't cross still innervate upper section)
what motor responsibility does CN IX have?
what motor responsibility does CN X have?
palate, pharynx, larynx