Lipoproteins and Cardiac Enzymes Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Lipoproteins and Cardiac Enzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipoproteins and Cardiac Enzymes Deck (49):
1

where is cholesterol metabolized?

liver

2

what transports cholesterol in the blood?

lipoproteins

3

why can cholesterol be a problem?

associated with atherosclerotic disease

4

what is the main function of cholesterol?

production of steroids, sex hormones, bile acids and cell membrane

5

what can also cause low levels of cholesterol?

liver disease and malnutrition

6

what coronary predictor is used to identify CAD risk from cholesterol?

Framingham study

7

what are the 5 major lipoproteins? present on the standard lipid panal

chylomicrons
VLDL
IDL
LDL
HDL

8

what do chylomicrons do?

carry fat from the GI tract to liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
-they are very large particles

9

what do VLDLs do?

carries endogenous (self-made) triglycerides from liver to adipose tissue
carries cholesterol
(when it is high it means that there is a lot of endogenous cholesterol)

10

what do IDLs do?

carries cholesterol esters and triglycerides
-usually not detectable

11

what do LDLs do?

carries cholesterol esters from liver to cells of the body

12

what do HDLs do?

collects cholesterol from tissues and vacular endothelium and returns it to the liver
-has a protective effect against heart disease

13

what is reverse transport?

when HDL takes cholesterol in the vasculature and returns it to the liver

14

how can we increase HDL?

excersize

15

what do triglycerides do?

acts as a storage source for energy, when they are high they are deposited in fatty tissues

16

how are triglycerides transported?

VLDL and LDL

17

what purposed does the lipid profile serve?

assess CAD risk
assess vascular dz risk

18

what is on a lipid profile?

total cholesterol
triglycerides
HDL
LDL
VLDL
HDL/LDL ratio

19

what are the normal adult TCC values?

<200mg/dl

20

what is the critical value of TG?

>400mg/dl

21

what are the normal HDL values?

m >45mg/dl
f >55mg/dl

22

what are the normal LDL values?

adult <110mg/dl

23

what TG value would cause an inaccurate LDL?

>400mg/dl

24

what is the normal range of VLDL?

7-32mg

25

how do you calculate LDL?

TCC-(TG/5-HDL)

26

what instructions are important for lipoprotein study?

12-14 hr fast
low fat meal prior to fast

27

what can interfere with cholesterol levels?

pregnancy increases levels
recumbent positions decrease levels
postmenopausal states cause increased levels

28

what can impact HDL levels?

age/sex

post MI decreases
smoking decreases
liver dz and malnutrition decreases
hyperthyroid decreases

hypothyroid increase
binge eating

29

main drugs that alter lipoprotien

beta blockers
alpha blockers
dilantin
steroids
estrogens

30

what are the normal values of CK?

m 55-170 u/L
f 30-135 u/L

31

If the pt is not having a coronary event, what will the total CK reflect?

CK-MM (skeletal muscle)

32

when would CK-MB be greater than 0?

pt is having a cardiac event

33

when would CK-BB be greater than 0?

pt is having something going on
(brain assoc. CK problem)

34

why use CK?

support dx of MI
can also indicate neurological and skeletal muscle dz

35

when can total CK rise?

within 6 hrs of damage

36

when will total CK return to normal?

peaks at 12-24 hours and returns to normal 2-3 days after infarction

37

when would CK-MB be slightly elevated and this would be normal?

marathons, triathalons
severe crush injury

38

what else can indicate myocardial injury?

LD within 24-48 hours

39

why do they no longer use LD?

it takes too long to see an elevation in the levels

40

what will cause a false high LD level?

hemolysis
strenuous exercise

41

what is the normal troponin T

<0.2 ng/ml

42

what is the normal troponin I

<0.3ng/ml

43

what are troponin levels used for?

determine if CP is caused by cardiac ischemia
early risk stratification for pts with unstable angina

44

what does troponin test mean?

biochemical markers for cardiac dz

45

why use troponin instead of CK?

elevates sooner (3hrs) and remains elevated longer
more sens and specific (CK can't differentiate ischemia)

46

why do you put date and time on test tube for cardiac enzyme tests?

know when to perform serial values

47

when are troponin T levels falsely elevated?

pts with renal heart failure

48

what marker increases in response to ventricular wall stress?

Btype natriuretic peptide (BNP)
useful prognostic indicator change over time

49

what is the use of CRP?

evaluate cardiac risk profile
considered to be related to cardiac atherogenesis

Decks in Medicine Class (146):