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Flashcards in Intro to Neuro Deck (33):
1

where do low level functions exist in the brain?

low in the brain (brain stem)

2

where do high level functions exist in the brain?

high in the brain (cortex)

3

why is neuroanatomy so confusing?

all cortical functions get carried through brainstem and then through the cord so a problem with these areas will look like cortical problems also

4

which are the UMN?

CNS-brain, spinal cord (until the anterior horn cell)

5

which are the LMN?

PNS-somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system (para/symp)
(from anterior horn cell to innervated muscle)

6

overactive parasympathetic response would provoke what?

salivation, lacrimation, urinary incontinence, bowel incontinence

7

overactive sympathetic response would provoke what?

tachycardia, flight or flight

8

what is the study of choice to examine the nervous system (with the exception of vascular problems)?

MRI
(distinguishes subtle differences in density of tissues)

9

what is the one thing that a non contrast CT of the brain would show you?

blood in the brain (hemorrhage)

10

which type of brain lesions are very debilitating?

deep brain lesions (processing centers-nuclei- are most affected)

11

what is an intracerebral hemorrhage?

blood accumulating below the pia mater (within the cerebral cortex)

12

what is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

blood accumulating in the subarachnoid space (usu. b/c of an aneurysm, AVM)
-presents with "worst headache of my life"

13

how is a subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed?

CT scan (followed by an LP if you are still suspicious)

14

what is a subdural hemorrhage?

blood accumulating in the subdural space
-older ppl, coumadin, traumatic,

15

what is the main complication with any intracranial hemorrhage?

skull doesn't have any give and it causes intracranial pressure increase which causes brain stem herniation

16

what are the main functions of the meninges?

outer covering
CSF circulation
buoyancy

17

what is the main arterial support to the meninges?

middle meningeal artery

18

what is are the main venous support to the meninges?

superior sagittal sinus
inferior sagittal sinus
transverse sinsu

19

which ventricle is adjacent to the cerebellum and is included in the hindbrain?

fourth

20

which is the oldest embryologic part of the brain (hindbrain)

cerebellum

21

what is included in the midbrain?

center of the brain

22

what is the diencephalon and telencephalon (forebrain)?

thalamus, hypothalamus (di)
corpus collosum, cerebrum, ganglai

23

what are frontal lobe functions?

reasoning
planning
speech
movement
emotions
problem-solving

24

what are the parietal functions?

movement
orientation
recognition
perception of stimuli

25

what are the occipital lobe functions?

visual processing

26

what are the temporal lobe functions?

perception
recognition of auditory stimuli
memory
speech

27

where are the pleasure/reward pathways located?

limbic system (thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus)

28

which part of brainstem is responsible for respiration and heartbeat?

medulla

29

what part of the brainstem helps with coordinating movement and analyzes sensory information?

pons

30

which part of the brain is involved with vision, hearing, eye movement and body movements?

midbrain

31

which type of brain cell has foot processes around capillaries forming the BBB?

astrocytes

32

what are clinical indications of UMN lesion?

1. contralaterally affected
2. spasticity and increased muscle tone
3. positive Babinski sign
4. no muscle atrophy
5. hyperreflexivity and clonus

33

what are clinical indications of LMN lesions?

1. decreases muscle tone and weakness
2. decreased strength and decreased reflexes
3. atrophy of muscles
4. abnormal EMG potentials, including fasciculations

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