what is the MCC of young person pneumonia that lives in close quarters?
what does a fatty embolus cause in the lungs?
diffuse pulmonary infiltrates
what can prevent pneumonia post op?
what is MCC of pneumonia in HIV pts?
which obstructive lung dz has predominantly neutrophil driven inflammation?
80% of chronic cough is caused by what three etiologies
what is the MCC of CAP?
what two blood tests are helpful in treating asthma?
where are tb bugs kept in remission?
when will TB become an active infection?
bug escapes from alveolar macrophage
when does TB dissemination occur?
before an active immune response
where are common areas that TB can affect?
brain, larynx, lymph node, lung, spine, bone, kidney
what helps evaluate likelihood of infection of TB?
infectiousness of person with TB
environmental factors that increase infectivity
proximity, frequency, duration of exposure
how long after infection will LTBI be detected on TST or interferon gamma assay (IGRA)?
do ppl with LTBI spread infection?
in how many ppl with LTBI become active TB?
half occur within 2 years of initial infection
what confirms TB infection?
positive TB culture (most often obtained by bronchoscopy)
what percentage of HIV ppl will get active TB after being exposed to it?
who else is at risk for getting TB?
silicosis (interstitial lung dz) DM steroid use gastrectomy children <5yrs
what are clinical features of TB
fever, chills, nightsweats, anorexia, wt loss, fatigue, chronic productive cough, CP, +/- hemoptysis, blood-streaking MC (frank blood is rare)
what are extrapulmonary features of TB if it has gone to other organ systems?
blood in urine
what is PE of TB lungs?
post tussive apical rales, but often is normal
in which pt would a 5mm PPD be a positive?
recent TB contacts
Fibrotic changes on CXR (indicating prior TB)
in which pt would a 10 mm PPD be a positive?
injection drug user
medical workers/mycobateria lab workers
in which pt would a 15 mm PPD be a positive?
no known TB risk (general population)
what are the 3 most common non TB infections?
M avium, M chelonae, M absessus
difficult to treat
3-5 drug regimen for 18 months